[This is an update of a previous post.]
The genus name Erithacus is Latinized from Greek εριθακος, erithakos, which is a bird mentioned by Aristotle, in Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, vol. 4 of The Works of Aristotle, eds. J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 9.632b27–30, where he describes Robins (εριθακος) as the ‘winter version’ of (Black) Redstarts (φοινικουρος, phoinikouros), birds that appear as Robins in winter and as Redstarts in summer – a misidentification of migration, as Redstarts would migrate south at about the same time when Robins would move in from the north.
In the binomial era, it was G. Cuvier who first mentioned Erithacus as a genus in Leçons d’anatomie comparée (Paris: Baudouin, 1800), 1, tab. 2. As of 2020 Erithacus is a monotypic genus since Ryukyu Robin and Japanese Robin have been added to the reinstated Larvivora (as Larvivora komadori and Larvivora akahige, respectively), see forthcoming post.
European Robin Erithacus rubecula = Little Red Robin – from Latin ruber = red, and Latin -culus = diminutive suffix – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758), 1: 188, as Motacilla Rubecula, where Motacilla = Wagtail from Latin mōtāre = to keep moving, and Latin cilla = diminutive, the latter mistaken for ‘tail’ in interpreting ‘Sic … motacilla,… quod semper movet caudam’ [Likewise … the wagtail,… because it is always moving its tail], from Marcus Terentius Varro‘s De Lingua Latina [On the Latin Language], trans. Roland G. Kent (London: William Heinemann/Cambridge, MA: Harcard University Press, 1938) 1: 5.11.76.
The following subspecies are recognized by the IOC:
- E. r. melophilus = Song-loving Robin – from Greek μελος, melos = song, tune, and Greek φιλος, philos = loving – type specimen collected by W. Burton near the Barnet, London, United Kingdom, 14 December 1896 (reported by Ernst Hartert in ‘Types of Birds in the Tring Museum’, Novitates Zoologicae 27, no. 2 (1920): 474), described by Hartert in ‘Aus den Wanderjahren eines Naturforschers. Reisen und Forschungen in Afrika, Asien und Amerika’, Novitates Zoologicae 8, no. 3 (1901): 317, as Erithacus rubecula melophilus (for elaboration see a previous post);
- E. r. rubecula = the nominate form;
- E. r. superbus = Magnificent Robin – from Latin superbus = superb, splendid, magnificent, from Latin super- = over, above (prefix) – collected by A. König on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, winter 1888, description published in ‘Vorläufige Notiz über zwei neue Vogelarten von den Canarischen Inseln’, Journal für Ornithologie 37, no. 186 (1889): 183, as Erithacus superbus;
- E. r. marionae = Marion’s Robin – for Marion Steinbüchel – type specimen collected by R. von Thanner near Moya, Canary Islands, Spain, (most likely) April 1909, described by Christian Dietzen, J. Pieter Michels and Michael Wink in ‘Formal Description of a New Subspecies of the European Robin from Gran Canaria Island, Spain (Aves: Muscicapidae: Erithacus rubecula marionae subsp. nov.)’, Open Ornithology Journal 8 (2015): 38–42 – IOC added subspecies, 2015 recommendation: Dietzen et al. 2015;
- E. r. witherbyi = Witherby’s Robin – for Harry F. Witherby – type specimen collected by Witherby near Hammam Righa (as Hammam r’Hira), Algeria, 27 April 1904 (reported by Ernst Hartert in ‘Types of Birds in the Tring Museum’, Novitates Zoologicae 27, no. 2 (1920): 474), described by Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel (Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1910), Heft 6, 753–754. Collated as vol. 1, 753–754, as Erithacus rubecula witherbyi;
- E. r. valens = Powerful Robin – from Latin valēns = strong, vigorous, healthy – type specimen collected by A.P. Gunali in the Crimean Nature Reserve, Crimea, 19 September 1923, described by L.A. Portenko in Птицы СССР [Birds of the Soviet Union], Guides for the Fauna of the USSR 54 (Moscow: Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences, 1954), 3: 193, as Erithacus rubecula valens;
- E. r. caucasicus = Caucasus Robin – for Caucasus – described by S.A. Buturlin in ‘Neue Formen aus dem Kaukasus’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte 15, no. 1 (1907): 9, as Erithacus rubecula caucasicus;
- E. r. hyrcanus = Hyrcanian Robin – for Hyrcania – described by W.T. Blanford in ‘Notes on the Synonymy of some Indian and Persian Birds, with Descriptions of Two New Species from Persia’, Ibis, 3rd ser., 4, no. 13 (1874): 79, as Erithacus hyrcanus;
- E. r. tataricus = Tatar Robin – for the area populated by people speaking the Tatar language – described by Hermann Grote in ‘Kurze Mitteilungen: Erithacus rubecula tataricus nov. subsp.’Ornithologische Monatsberichte 36, no. 2 (1928): 52.