Emberizidae

EMBERIZIDAE Brehm, 1928

C. L. Brehm. “Uebersicht der deutschen Vögelarten.” Isis von Oken, Bd. 21, Heft 12 (1828), col. 1278.


Emberiza Linnaeus, 1758

Emberiza Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 176.

Latinized from Alemannic German emmeritz = bunting/yellowhammer, from Old High German amarzo, diminutive of amaro = bunting.


Emberiza lathami Crested Bunting Gray, 1831

Emberiza Lathami John Edward Gray. “Description of Twelve Undescribed Species of Birds, Discovered by John Reeves, Esq., in China.” The Zoological Miscellany; To Be Continued Occasionally 1 (1831), 2 – type coll. China, John Reeves.

(Latham’s Bunting) for John Latham.


Emberiza siemsseni Slaty Bunting (Martens, 1906)

Junco siemsseni G. H. Martens. “Eine neue Ammerart aus Südost China.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 14, no. 12 (1916), 192–194 – type coll. along the Min River, Futschau [Fuzhou], Fokien [Fújiàn], China, G. Siemssen.

(Siemssen’s Bunting) for G. Siemssen [Gustav Theodor Siemssen].


Emberiza calandra Corn Bunting Linnaeus, 1758

Emberiza Calandra Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 176–177 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

(Lark Bunting) Latinized from Greek κάλανδρος, kálandros = lark.

E. c. calandra Linnaeus, 1758

E. c. buturlini Johansen, 1907

Emberiza calandra buturlini Hermann Johansen. “Neue palaearktische Formen.” Ornithologisches Jahrbuch 18, Heft 5–6 (1907), 202 – type coll. Fluss Kastek [Karatal River?] estuary, Siebenstromgebiet [Zhetysu], Kazakhstan?, 24 May 1902, W. W. Ssaposhnokow expedition.

(Buturlin’s Bunting) for S. A. Buturlin, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza citrinella Yellowhammer Linnaeus, 1758

Emberiza Citrinella Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 177 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

(Citrine Bunting) Latin citrinella = lemon-coloured, citrine, from citrīna = citric, from citrus = lemon tree, and -ella = diminutive suffix.

E. c. caliginosa Clancey, 1940

Emberiza citrinella caliginosa Philip A. Clancey [Phillip A. Clancey]. “Notes on Some Birds from Scotland.” Ibis 82, no. 1 (1940), 94 – type coll. Dornoch, Sutherland, Scotland, UK, 2 September 1938, P. A. Clancey.

(Dark Bunting) Latin cālīginōsa = dark, obscure, misty, from cālīgō = fog, darkness, and adjectival suffix -ōsa = indicating an abundance of the noun.

E. c. citrinella Linnaeus, 1758

E. c. erythrogenys Brehm, 1855

Emberiza erythrogenys Christian Ludwig Brehm. Der vollständige Vögelsang. Eine gründliche Anleitung alle europäischen Vögel. Weimar: Verlag von Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1855, 414 – type loc. Sarepta, Vogograd Oblast, Russia.

(Red-cheeked Bunting) Latinized from Greek ἐρῠθρός, eruthrós = red, and γένῠς, génus = jaw, mouth.


Emberiza leucocephalos Pine Bunting Gmelin, 1771

Emberiza leucocephalos Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin “Rariorum avium expositio.” Novi commentarii Academiae scientiarum imperialis Petropolitanae 15 (1771), 480–482 – type loc. Astrachaniae [Astrakhan Oblast], Russia.

(White-headed Bunting) from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and -κέφαλος, -kéfalos = -headed, from κεφᾰλή, kephalḗ = head.

E. l. leucocephalos Gmelin, 1771

E. l. fronto Stresemann, 1930

Emberiza leucocephalos fronto E. Stresemann. “Neue Formen aus Nord-Kanzu.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 38, no. 3 (1930), 90 – type coll. Sining-ho [Huanchui River?], Kanzu [Gansu], China, 22 June 1929, W. Beick.

(Black-fronted Bunting) Latin frontō = individual with large forehead, from frōns = forehead.


Emberiza cia Rock Bunting Linnaeus, 1766

Emberiza Cia Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 310–311 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

(Bunting) local Italian name for (Rock) Bunting, from Italian zirlare = to sing (like a thrush).

E. c. cia Linnaeus, 1766

E. c. hordei Brehm, 1831

Emberiza hordei Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands…. Ilmenau: Verlag von Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 298–299 – type loc. Southeast Europe.

(Barley Bunting) Latin hordeī = genitive of hordeum = barley.

E. c. prageri Laubmann, 1915

Emberiza cia prageri A. Laubmann. “Zwei neue Formen aus dem Kaukasus.” Verhandlungen der Ornithologischen Gesellschaft in Bayern, Bd. 12, Heft 2 (1915), 98–101 – type coll. Psebai [Psebay], Kuban, Krasnodar Oblast, Russia, 28 April 1914, Max Prager.

(Prager’s Bunting) for Max Prager, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. par Hartert, 1904

Emberiza cia par Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1904, Heft 2, 184. Collated and republished as Bd. 1 (1910), 184 – type coll. (area where the) Gadun [Jadun] (live), Transcaspia, 13 May 1892, N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny].

(Equivalent Bunting) Latin pār = equal, like, suitable.

E. c. stracheyi Moore, 1856

Emberiza stracheyi Frederic Moore. “Notice of Some New Species of Birds.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 23 (“1855”), no. 297 (1856), 215, pl. 112. Republished in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd ser., 18, no. 106 (1856), 343–344 – type coll. Kumaon, British India, R. Strachey.

(Strachey’s Bunting) for Richard Strachey, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. flemingorum Martens, 1972

Emberiza cia flemingorum Jochen Martens. “Brutverbreitung paläarktische Vögel im Nepal-Himalaya.” Bonner zoologische Beiträge 23, Heft 2 (1972), 116–119 – type coll. Barbung Khola, Tarang, Nepal, 14 June 1970, J. Martens.

(Fleming’s Bunting) for Robert L. Fleming Sr.?, with Latin -ōrum = adjectical suffix.


Emberiza godlewskii Godlewski’s Bunting Taczanowski, 1874

Emberiza Godlewskii L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. “Zweiter Nachtrag zum Bericht über die ornithologischen Untersuchungen des Dr. Dybowski in Ost-Siberien.” Journal für Ornithologie, Jg. 22, Folge 4 [4th ser.], Bd. 2, Heft 3, no. 127 (1874), 330–331 – type loc. Dauria [Transbaikal], Kultuk, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia.

(Godlewski’s Bunting) for Victor Godlewski, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. g. decolorata Sushkin, 1925

Emberiza godlewskii decolorata Peter P. Sushkin [Petr P. Sushkin]. “Notes on Systematics and Distribution of Certain Palaearctic Birds.” Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 38, 1 (1925), 24–25 – type coll. Naryn, Kyrgyzstan, February 1913, V. Dacenko.

(Discoloured Bunting) Latin dēcolōrāta = discoloured.

E. g. godlewskii Taczanowski, 1874

E. g. khamensis Sushkin, 1925

Emberiza godlewskii khamensis Peter P. Sushkin [Petr P. Sushkin]. “Notes on Systematics and Distribution of Certain Palaearctic Birds.” Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 38, 1 (1925), 26–27 – type coll. Dza-Chu [Za Qu], Mekong, Kham, Tibet/China, 23 September 1901, P. Kozlov.

(Kham Bunting) for Kham, Tibet/China, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

E. g. yunnanensis Sharpe, 1902

Emberiza yunnanensis R. Bowdler Sharpe. “On New Birds from Yun-nan.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 13, no. 91 (1902), 12 – type coll. Gyi-dzin-shán [Mount Jizu], Tali-fu [Daly City], Yunnan, China, G. Rippon.

(Yunnan Bunting) for Yunnan, China, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

E. g. omissa Rothschild, 1921

Emberiza cia omissa W. Rothschild. “On a Collection of Birds from West-central and North-western Yunnan.” Novitates zoologicae 28, no. 1 (1921), 60–61 – type loc. Si Taipaishan [Mount Taibai], Tsin-ling Mountains [Qinling], Shaanxi, China.

(Neglected Bunting) Latin omissa = neglected, ignored.


Emberiza cioides Meadow Bunting Brandt, 1843

Emberiza cioides J.-F. Brandt [J. F. von Brandt]. “Notes sur trois nouvelles espèces d’oiseaux chanteurs de Sibérie.” Bulletin de la Classe physico-mathématique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Péterbourg 1, no. 23 (1843), 363 (descr.), col. 362 (name) – type loc. Siberia, Russia.

(Eastern Rock Bunting) Latin cioides = resembling cia, for Emberiza cia, and Latinized -oides = resembling, from Greek -ειδής, -eidḗs = like.

E. c. tarbagataica Sushkin, 1925

Emberiza cioides tarbagataica P. P. Sushkin. “Список и распределение птиц русского Алтая и ближайших частей северо-западной Монголии с описанием новых и малоизвестных форм.” [List and distribution of birds of the Russian Altai and nearest parts of NW Mongolia, with a description of new and imperfectly known forms.] Leningrad: USSR Academy of Sciences Publishing House, 1925, 67 – type coll. Temir-su, Zaissansk [Zaysan], Kazakhstan (then USSR), 21 September 1904, P. P. Sushkin.

(Tarbagatai Bunting) for the Tarbagatai Mountains, Kazakhstan/China, with Latin adjectival suffix -ca = characteristic of.

E. c. cioides Brandt, 1843

E. c. weigoldi Jacobi, 1923

Emberiza cioides weigoldi A. Jacobi. “Zoologische Ergebnisse der Walter Stötznerschen Expeditionen nach Szetschwan, Osttibet und Tschili auf Grund der Sammlungen und Beobachtungen Dr. Hugo Weigolds. 2. Teil. Aves: 4. Fringillidae und Ploceidae.” Abhandlungen und Berichte der Museen für Tierkunde und Völkerkunde zu Dresden 16, no. 1 (1923), 36 – type loc. near Peking [Beijing], China.

(Weigold’s Bunting) for H. Weigold, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. castaneiceps Moore, 1856

Emberiza castaneiceps Frederic Moore. “Notice of Some New Species of Birds.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 23 (“1855”), no. 297 (1856), 215. Republished in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd ser., 18, no. 106 (1856), 344 – type loc. Kintang, China.

(Chestnut-headed Bunting) Latin castaneī = chestnut-coloured, from castanea = chestnut, and Latin suffix -ceps = headed, from caput = head.

E. c. ciopsis Bonaparte, 1850

Emberiza ciopsis Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E.J. Brill, 1: 466 – type loc. Japan.

(Japanese Rock Bunting) Latin ciopsis = like cia, for Emberiza cia, and Latinized -opsis = appearance, from Greek ὄψῐς, ópsis = view.


Emberiza stewarti White-capped Bunting (Blyth, 1854)

Euspiza Stewarti E. Blyth. “Report of Curator, Zoological Department, February 1854.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 23, no. 2 (1854), 215 – type coll. Landour, Uttarakhand, India, L. C. Stewart.

(Stewart’s Bunting) for L. C. Stewart, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza jankowskii Jankowski’s Bunting Taczanowski, 1888

Emberiza jankowskii L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. “Description d’une nouvelle espèce du genre Emberiza.” Ibis, 5th ser., 6, no. 23 (1888), 317–319, pl. 8 – type coll. Sidemi, KoreaManchuria border, 9 March 1886, M. Jankowski.

(Jankowski’s Bunting) for M. Jankowski, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza buchanani Grey-necked Bunting Blyth, 1845

Emberiza Buchanani E. Blyth. “Synopsis of Indian Fringillidae.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 13, pt 2, no. 156, n.s., no. 72 (1845, “1844”), 957–958 – type loc. India.

(Buchanan’s Bunting) for Buchanan Hamilton [Francis Buchanan], with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. b. cerrutii De Filippi, 1863

Emberiza Cerrutii F. De Filippi. “Nuove o poco note specie di animali vertebrati raccolte in un viaggio in Persia nell’ estate dell’ anno 1862.” Archivio per la zoologia, l’anatomia e la fisiologia 2, fasc. 2 (1863), 383–384. Republished and extended in Herman Schalow. “Zur Ornis Persiens. ‘Note di un viaggio in Persia nel 1862 di F. de Filippi. Milano 1865.’ Catalogo degli uccelli.” Translated and annotated by Herman Schalow. Journal für Ornithologie, Jg. 24, Folge 4, Bd. 4, Heft 2, no. 134 (1876), 183–184 – type coll. Sardakan, Armenia and Sainkalé [Sain Qaleh], Persia [Iran], F. De Filippi.

(Cerruti’s Bunting) for M. Cerruti.

E. b. buchanani Blyth, 1845

E. b. neobscura Paynter, 1970

Emberiza buchanani neobsura Raymond A. Paynter Jr.. “Subfamily Emberizinae, Buntings and American Sparrows.” Vol. 13 of Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters. Edited by Raymond A. Paynter Jr., in consultation with Ernst Mayr. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1970, 13.

Emberiza buchanani obscura N. Zarudny and B. Korejew. “Emberiza buchanani Blyth var. obscura subsp. nov.” In “Einige neue Spezies und Subspezies paläarktische Vogelarten.” N. Zarudny. Ornithologische Monatsberichte 11, no. 9 (1903), 130 – type loc. Semiretschje [Zhetysu], Turkestan.

(Another Dark Bunting) from Greek νέος, néos = new, unexpected, different, and epithet Emberiza buchanani obscura (syn.).


Emberiza cineracea Cinereous Bunting Brehm, 1855

Emberiza cineracea Christian Ludwig Brehm. Der vollständige Vögelsang. Eine gründliche Anleitung alle europaischen Vögel. Weimar: Verlag von Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1855, 114 – type loc. Smyrna, Turkey.

(Cinerous Bunting) Latin cineracea = ash-grey, cinerous, from cinis = ashes, and adjectival sufffix -ācea = resembling.

E. c. cineracea Brehm, 1855

E. c. semenowi Zarudny, 1904

Emberiza (Hypocentor) semenowi N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny]. “Über neue Arten und Formen.” Ornithologisches Jahrbuch 15, no. (1904), 217–218 – type coll. Bidesar, Arabistan, present-day Khuzestan, Iran, 27 March 1904, N. Zarudny.

(Semyonov’s Bunting) for Peter Petrowitsch Semenow [Pyotr Petrovich Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, né Pyotr Petrovich Semyonov].


Emberiza hortulana Ortolan Bunting Linnaeus, 1758

Emberiza Hortulana Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 177 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

(Garden Bunting) Latin hortulāna = of or belonging to a garden, from hortulus = small garden (diminutive of hortus = garden), and suffix -āna = of or pertaining to.


Emberiza caesia Cretzschmar’s Bunting Cretzschmar, 1827

Emberiza caesia Ph.J. Cretzschmar. Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika von Eduard Rüppell – Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, 1827, Heft 4, p. 17, pl. 10, fig. 2 – type coll. Kurgos Island, Sudan, December 1923–January 1924, E. Rüppell.

(Blue-grey Bunting) Latin caesia = bluish grey.


Emberiza cirlus Cirl Bunting Linnaeus, 1766

Emberiza Cirlus Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 311 – type loc. Europæ.

(Bunting) local Italian name for (Cirl) Bunting, from Italian zirlare = to sing (like a thrush).


Emberiza striolata Striolated Bunting (Lichtenstein, 1823)

Fringilla striolata H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königlichen Universität zu Berlin; nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823, 24.

(Striated Bunting) Latin striolāta = striated.

E. s. saturatior (Sharpe, 1901)

Fringillaria saturatior R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Fringillaria saturatior, n. sp.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 11, no. 77 (1901), 47 – type coll. Lake Stephanie [Lake Chew Bahir], Ethiopia, A. Donaldson Smith.

(Bright Bunting) Latin saturātior = more richly coloured, comparative (suffix -ior) of saturātus = satisfied, sated, fully coloured, from saturāre = to fill completely, to satify.

E. s. jebelmarrae (Lynes, 1920)

Fringillaria striolata jebelmarræ H. Lynes. “Exhibition and Descriptions of Two New Subspecies from Darfur: Micropus æquatorialis furensis and Fringillaria jebelmarræ striolata [sic].” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 41, no. 254 (1920), 34–35 – Jebel Marra [Marrah Mountains], Sudan, 5 April 1920, H. Lynes.

(Marrah Bunting) for Jebel Marra [Marrah Mountains], Sudan, with Latin -ae = adjectival suffix.

E. s. striolata (Lichtenstein, 1823)


Emberiza sahari House Bunting Levaillant, 1850

Emberiza Sahari J. J. R. Levaillant. “Emberiza Sahari.” In Exploration scientifique de l’Algérie, pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842. Sciences physique. Zoologie. Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poisson. A. Guichenot. Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1850, Atlas: pl. 9 bis, fig. 2. (Descr. in syn.) – type coll. Ghelma, Constantine, Algeria, J. J. R. Levaillant.

Fringillaria Sahara V. Loche. “Fringillaire du Sahara Fringillaria Sahara.” In Exploration scientifique de l’Algérie, pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842. Sciences physique. Zoologie. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux. Tome 2. Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1867, 182183.

(Sahara Bunting) for the Sahara.

E. s. sanghae Traylor, 1960

Emberiza striolata sanghae Melvin A. Traylor. “A new race of Emberiza striolata.” Natural History Miscellania, no. 175 (1960), 1–2 – type coll. Sangha, French Sudan [Mali], 14 March 1934, R. Boulton and L. Boulton.

(Sangha Bunting) for Sangha, French Sudan [Mali], with Latin -ae = adjectival suffix.

E. s. sahari Levaillant, 1850


Emberiza impetuani Lark-like Bunting Smith, 1836

Emberiza Impetuani A. Smith. Report of the Expedition for Exploring Central Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope, June 23, 1834. Cape Town: Government Gazette Office, 1836, 48 – type loc. between the Nu Gariep and Tropic [of Capricorn], Southern Africa.

(Finch) possibly from Zulu Im’tiyane = finch, waxbill.

E. i. impetuani Smith, 1836

E. i. sloggetti (Macdonald, 1957)

Fringilla impetuani sloggetti J. D. Macdonald. Contribution to the Ornithology of Western South Africa: Results of the British Museum (Natural History) South West Africa Expedition, 1949–50. London: trustees of the British Museum, 1957, 170 – type coll. Deelfontein, Northern Cape, South Africa, 25 January 1901, Eibert C. H. Seimund.

(Sloggett’s Bunting) for A. T. Sloggett, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza tahapisi Cinnamon-breasted Bunting Smith, 1836

Emberiza Tahapisi A. Smith. Report of the Expedition for Exploring Central Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope, June 23, 1834. Cape Town: Government Gazette Office, 1836, 48 – type loc. upper Vaal River, South Africa.

(Zebra Bunting) from Tswana Thagapitse = zebra bird, various stripeheaded finches/weavers.

E. t. arabica (Lorenz von Liburnau and Hellmayr, 1902)

Fringillaria arabica L. von Lorenz [L. Lorenz von Liburnau] and C. E. Hellmayr. “Fringillaria arabica sp. nov.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 10, no. 4 (1902), 55 – type coll. Jeshbum, Arabia [Arbian Peninsula], 8 January 1900.

(Arabian Bunting) for Arabia [Arabian Peninsula].

E. t. septemstriata Rüppell, 1837

Emberiza septemstriata Eduard Rüppell. Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig – Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, Lfg. 10 (1837), pl. 30, fig. 2 (ill.), Lfg. 13 (1840), 86 (descr.). Collated and republished as Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1840, 86 (descr.), pl. 30, fig 2 (ill.) – type loc. Gondar, Abyssinia [Ethiopia].

(Seven-furoowed Bunting) from Latin septem = seven, and striāta = furrow, groove.

E. t. tahapisi Smith, 1836

E. t. nivenorum (Winterbottom, 1965)

Fringillaria tahapisi nivenorum J. M. WInterbottom. “Report on the Birds of Game Reserve No. 2.” Cimbebasia, no. 9 (1965), 73 – type coll. Otjivasando, Kaokoveld [Kaokoland], Namibia, 9 September 1963, J. M. Winterbottom.

(Niven’s Bunting) for J.P. Mackie Niven and Cecily Niven, née FitzPatrick , with Latin adjectival suffix -ōrum.


Emberiza goslingi Gosling’s Bunting (Alexander, 1906)

Fringillaria goslingi Boyd Alexander. “On Three New Species Collected during His Expedition, beteen Lake Chad and the Nile.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 16, no. 126 (1906), 124 – type coll. Mbima, River Welle [Uele River], Democratic Republic of Congo, 8 August 1904, B. Alexander.

(Gosling’s Bunting) for George Bennett Gosling, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza socotrana Socotra Bunting (Ogilvie-Grant and Forbes, 1899)

Fringillaria socrotrana W. R. Ogilvie-Grant and Henry O. Forbes. “The Expedition to Socotra: 1. Descriptions of the New Species of Birds.” Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums 2, no. 1 (1899), 2 – type loc. Adho Dimellus, Socotra.

(Socotra Bunting) for Socotra, with Latin adjectival suffix -āna = of, pertaining to.


Emberiza capensis Cape Bunting Linnaeus, 1766

Emberiza capensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 310 – type loc. Caput bonae spei [Cape of Good Hope].

(Cape Bunting) for the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, with Latin adjectival suffix -ēnsis = of or from a place.

E. c. nebularum (Rudebeck, 1958)

Fringillaria capensis nebularum Gustaf Rudebeck. “A New Race of the Bunting Fringillaria capensis (L.) from Angola.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 78, no. 7 (1958), 129–132 – type coll. Lucira, Namibe, Angola, 13 September 1956, G. Rudebeck.

(Misty Bunting) Latin nebulārum = of the clouds, of the mist, genitive plural of nebula = fog, cloud.

E. c. bradfieldi (Roberts, 1928)

Fringillaria capensis bradfieldi Austin Roberts. “Birds and Mammals from South-West Africa Collected by Mr. R. D. Bradfield and Presented to the Transvaal Museum, with Taxonomic Notes and Descriptions of New Forms.” Annals of the Transvaal Museum 12, no. 4 (1928), 328 – type coll. Waterberg Police Post, now in Waterberg Plateau Park, Namibia, 14 September 1925, R. D. Bradfield.

(Bradfield’s Bunting) for R. D. Bradfield, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. smithersii (Plowes, 1951)

Fringillaria capensis smithersii D.C.H. Plowes. “A New Race of Cape Bunting, from Mashonaland.” Ostrich 22, no. 1 (1951), 35 – type coll. Martin Forest Reserve, Chimanimani Mountains, Southern Rhodesia [Zimbabwe], 8 October 1950, D. C. H. Plowes.

(Smithers’ Bunting) for R. H. N. Smithers, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. plowesi (Vincent, 1950)

Fringillaria capensis plowesi Jack Vincent. “New Races of the Cape Bunting from Southern Rhodesia and Basutoland.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 70, no. 2 (1950), 15 – Matopos Research Station, Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia [Zimbabwe], 24 April 1949, D. C. H. Plowes.

(Plowes’ Bunting) for D. C. H. Plowes, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. limpopoensis (Roberts, 1924)

Fringillaria capensis limpopoensis Austin Roberts. “Synoptic Check List of the Birds of South Africa.” Annals of the Transvaal Museum 10, pt 3 (1924), 187 – type loc. Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa.

(Limpopo Bunting) for the Limpopo River, Transvaal, South Africa, with Latin adjectival suffix -ēnsis = of or from a place.

E. c. reidi (Shelley, 1902)

Fringillaria reidi G. E. Shelley. The Birds of Africa, Comprising All the Species Which Occur in the Ethiopian Region. London: R.H. Porter, 1902, 3: 158–159 – type coll. Ingagani River, Natal [KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa, 14 July 1881, Saville Reid.

(Reid’s Bunting) for Saville Reid, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. basutoensis (Vincent, 1950)

Fringillaria capensis basutoensis Jack Vincent. “New Races of the Cape Bunting from Southern Rhodesia and Basutoland.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 70, no. 2 (1950), 14–15 – type coll. source of the Lekhalabaletsi River, Basutoland [Lesotho], 25 July 1949, J. Vincent.

(Basuto Bunting) for Basutoland [Lesotho], with Latin adjectival suffix -ēnsis = of or from a place.

E. c. cinnamomea (Lichtenstein, 1842)

Fringilla cinnamomea H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss einer Sammlung von Säugethieren und Vögeln aus dem Kaffernlande, nebst einer Käfer-Sammlung. Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1842, 16 – type coll. Liqua Fluss [Vaal River], northeast Cape (Mpumalanga?), South Africa, L. Krebs.

(Cinnamon-coloured Bunting) Latin cinnamōmea = cinnamon-coloured, from cinnamōmum = cinnamon, and -ea = adjectival suffix to indicate the source of an attribute.

E. c. vinacea Clancey, 1963

Emberiza capensis vinacea P. A. Clancey. “Miscellaneous taxonomic notes on African birds. XX.” Durban Museum Novitates 6, no. 19 (1963), 264.

(Wine-coloured Bunting) Latin vīnācea = skin or husk of a grape.

E. c. capensis Linnaeus, 1766


Emberiza vincenti Vincent’s Bunting (Lowe, 1932)

Fringillaria capensis vincenti Percy R. Lowe. “Description of, and remarks on, a New Race of the Cape Bunting (Fringillaria capensis vincenti) from Zombrué [sic], Portuguese East Africa.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 52, no. 361 (1932), 144–145 – type coll. Zombué, Portuguese East Africa [Mozambique], 9 April 1932, J. Vincent.

(Vincent’s Bunting) for Jack Vincent, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza tristrami Tristram’s Bunting Swinhoe, 1870

Emberiza tristrami R. Swinsoe. “Zoological Notes on a Journey from Canton to Peking and Kalgan.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1870, pt 2, no. 29 (1870), 441–442 – type coll. Amoy [Xiamen], Fújiàn, China, December 1867, R. Swinhoe.

(Tristram’s Bunting) for H. B. Tristram, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza fucata Chestnut-eared Bunting Pallas, 1776

Emberiza fucata P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga. Pt 3, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 698 (descr.). And Reise im östlichen Sibirien und bis in Dauurien. 1772stes Jahr. Pt 3 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 237 (narr.) – type coll. Bjelokopytowa, along the Onon River, Russia, 6–7 June 1772, P. S. Pallas?.

(Coloured Bunting) Latin fūcāta = coloured, from fūcāre = to colour, to dye, to paint.

E. f. arcuata Sharpe, 1888

Emberiza arcuata R. Bowdler Sharpe. Fringilliformes: Part 3; Containing the Family Fringillidæ. Vol. 10 of Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds, in the Collection of the British Museum. Vol. 12 of Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1888, 494 – type loc. Himalayas.

(Crescent Bunting) Latin arcuāta = curved, arched.

E. f. fucata Pallas, 1776

E. f. kuatunensis La Touche, 1925

Emberiza fucata kuatunensis J. D. La Touche. “Descriptions of Two Forms of Buntings from China: Emberiza fucata kuatunensis and E. f. fluviatilis.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 46, no. 299 (1925), 24 – type coll. Kuatun, northwest Fohkien [Fujian], China, 23 April 1898, J. D. La Touche?.

(Kuatun Bunting) for Kuatun, Fujian, China, with Latin adjectival suffix -ēnsis = of or from a place.


Emberiza pusilla Little Bunting Pallas, 1776

Emberiza pusilla P. S. Pallas. “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga. Pt 3, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 697–698 – type coll. under syn.

Emberiza minuta P. S. Pallas. Reise im östlichen Sibirien und bis in Dauurien. 1772stes Jahr. Pt 3 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 186n – type coll. Konda River, Russia, 4 May 1772, P. S. Pallas?.

(Tiny Bunting) Latin pusilla = tiny, very little, very small.


Emberiza chrysophrys Yellow-browed Bunting Pallas, 1776

Emberiza chrysophrys P. S. Pallas. “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga. Pt 3, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 698–699 – type coll. under syn.

Emberiza chrysocilla P. S. Pallas. Reise im östlichen Sibirien und bis in Dauurien. 1772stes Jahr. Pt 3 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 186n – type coll. Konda River, Russia, 4 May 1772, P. S. Pallas?.

(Golden-browed Bunting) from Greek χρῡσός, khrūsós = gold, and ὀφρῡ́ς, ophrū́s = eyebrow.


Emberiza rustica Rustic Bunting Pallas, 1776

Emberiza rustica P. S. Pallas. “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga. Pt 3, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 698 (descr.). And Reise im östlichen Sibirien und bis in Dauurien. 1772stes Jahr. Pt 3 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 165 (narr.) – type coll. along a contributory of the Selenga River?, Russia, 23 April 1772, P. S. Pallas?.

(Rustic Bunting) Latin rūstica = rustic, rural, of a country.


Emberiza elegans Yellow-throated Bunting Temminck, 1836

Emberiza elegans C. J. Temminck. “Bruant élegant. Emberiza elegans. Temm.” In C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G.M.J. Meiffren Laugier]. Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1836, livr. 98, pl. 583. Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 3: pl. 583, fig. 1, descr. on opp. page – type loc. Japan.

(Elegant Bunting) Latin ēlegāns = elegant.

E. e. elegans Temminck, 1836

E. e. elegantula Swinhoe, 1870

Emberiza elegantula R. Swinhoe. “Descriptions of Seven New Species of Birds Procured during a Cruise up the Rive Yangtsze (China).” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1870, pt 1, no. 9 (1870), 134–135 – type coll. Kweichow [Guizhou]?, Hoopih [Hubei], China, 18 April 1869, R. Swinhoe.

(Lesser Elegant Bunting) Latin ēlegantula = diminutive of ēlegāns = elegant, thus small and elegant.


Emberiza aureola Yellow-breasted Bunting Pallas, 1773

Emberiza Aureola P. S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Russischen Reichs im 1771 Jahr. Theil 2, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773, 711 (descr.). And Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Russischen Reichs im 1771 Jahr. Theil 2, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773, 464 (narr.) – type coll. Irtisch River [Irtysch River], Russia, 28–29 May 1771, P. S. Pallas?.

(Golden Bunting) Latin aureola = covered or decorated with gold, gilded, from aureus = made of gold, golden, gilded, from aurum = gold, and -ola = diminutive suffix.

E. a. aureola Pallas, 1773

E. a. ornata Shulpin, 1928

Emberiza aureola ornata L. M. Shulpin. “Новые данные по распространению птиц в Южно-Уссурийском крае и описание новых форм.” [New data on the distribution of birds in the South Ussuri krai and a description of new forms.] Ежегодник Зоологического музея Академии наук СССР/Annuaire du Musee Zoologique de l’Academie des Sciences de URSS 28 (“1927”), no. 3 (1928), 401 – type coll. Tawritschanka [Tavrichanka], mouth of the Suifun River [Suifen River], Maritime Territory [Primorsky Krai], Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, USSR [Russia], 14 July 1926, L. Shulpin.

(Adorned Bunting) Latin ōrnāta = adorned, decorated.


Emberiza poliopleura Somali Bunting (Salvadori, 1888)

Fringillaria poliopleura Tommaso Salvadori. “Catalogo di una collezione di uccello dello Scioa fatta dal Dott. Vincenzo Ragazzi negli anni 1884, 1885, 1886.” Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale di Genova 26, 2nd ser., 6 (1888), 269–271 – type coll. Soddè, Scioa [Shewa], Italian Eritrea [Eritrea], 2 August 1886, V. Ragazzi.

(Grey-flanked Bunting) from Greek πολῐός, poliós = grey, and πλευρᾱ́, pleurā́ = side, flank.


Emberiza flaviventris Golden-breasted Bunting Stephens, 1815

Emberiza flaviventris J. F. Stephens “Yellow-bellied Bunting (Emberiza flaviventris).” In Birds. Vol. 9, pt 2 of General Zoology. London: G. Wilkie; J. Walker; J. Stockdale; J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; E. Jeffery; Sherwood, Neeley, and Jones; Law and Whittaker; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; R. Scholey; J. Black; W. Lowe; J. Booth; Gale and Fenner; S. Bagster; J. Robinson; J. Rodwell; Walker and Edwards; Harper, 374–376.

(Yellow-bellied Bunting) Latin flāviventris = yellow-bellied, from flāvus = yellow, golden, and venter = belly, with -is = adjectival suffix.

E. f. flavigaster Cretzschmar, 1828

Emberiza flavigaster Ph. J. Cretschmar. Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika von Eduard Rüppell: Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Heinr. Ludw. Brönner, 1828, Lief. 8, 38, pl. 25. Collated and republished as “Vogel”. In Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika von Eduard Rüppell. Erste Abtheilung. Zoologie. Edited by Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft [Ph. J. Cretschmar]. Frankfurt am Main: Heinr. Ludw. Brönner, 1826–1828, 38, pl. 25 – type loc. Kordofan, Sudan.

(Yellow-bellied Bunting) from Latin flāvus = yellow, golden, and gaster = belly, from Greek γᾰστήρ, gastḗr = belly.

E. f. kalaharica Roberts, 1932

Emberiza flaviventris kalaharica Austin Roberts. “Preliminary Description of Sixty-six New Forms of South African Birds (43 from Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition, 1930).” Annals of the Transvaal Museum 15, no. 1 (1932), 34 – type coll. Tsotsoroga Pan, Bechuanaland [Bostwana], 18 June 1930, Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition.

(Kalahari Bunting) for the Kalahari Desert, with Latin -ca = adjectival suffix.

E. f. princeps Clancey and Winterbottom, 1960

Emberiza flaviventris princeps P. A. Clancey and J. M. Winterbottom. “Geographical Variation in the South African Populations of the Golden-breasted Bunting Emberiza flaviventris Stephens.” Durban Museum Novitates 6, no. 1 (1960), 7–9 – type coll. Farm Hoffnung, Windhoek, Damaraland [Namibia], 9 May 1959, P. A. Clancey.

(Principal Bunting) Latin prī̆nceps = first, foremost, from prīmus = first, and -ceps = -catcher.

E. f. flaviventris Stephens, 1815


Emberiza affinis Brown-rumped Bunting Heuglin, 1867

Emberiza affinis M. Th. von Heuglin. “Ueber die ornithologischen Arbeiten des Hertogs Paul Wilhelm von Würtemberg.” Journal für Ornithologie 15, Heft 5, no. 89 (1867), 297.

(Kindred Bunting) Latin affīnis = neighbouring, allied to, kindred, related, from ad = to, towards, up to, and fīnis = end, limit, boundary.

E. a. nigeriae Bannerman and Bates, 1926

Emberiza affinis nigeriae David A. Bannerman and George L. Bates. “On Some Birds of Adamawa and New Cameroon: An Answer to Some Criticisms and Remarks on New Forms Recently Described Dr. Hermann Grote.” Ibis, 12th ser., 2, no. 4, 68, no. 4 (1926), 801 – type coll. northeast of Yola, Nigeria, 19 July 1925, G. L. Bates.

(Nigerian Bunting) for Nigeria, with Latin -ae = adjectival suffix.

E. a. vulpecula Grote, 1921

Emberiza affinis vulpecula Hermann Grote. “Neue Vogelformen von Neukamerun und aus dem Tschadgebiet.” Anzeiger der Ornithologische Gesellschaft in Bayern, Bd. 1, no. 5 (1921), 39 – type coll. Bosum [Bozoum], Kamerun [German Cameroon], present-day Central African Republic, 18 April 1914, G. Teßmann.

(Fox Bunting) Latin vulpēcula = little fox, diminutive of fox, from vulpēs = fox, and -cula = diminutive suffix.

E. a. affinis Heuglin, 1867

E. a. omoensis Neumann, 1905

Emberiza affinis omoensis Oscar Neumann. “Vögel von Schoa und Süd-Äthiopien.” Journal für Ornithologie 53, Heft 2 (1905), 358–359 – type coll. Schetie, Koscha, Ethiopia, 28 February 1901, O. Neumann.

(Omo Bunting) for the Omo River, with Latin adjectival suffix -ēnsis = of or from a place.


Emberiza cabanisi Cabanis’s Bunting (Reichenow, 1875)

Polymitra (Fringillaria) Cabanisi Anton Reichenow. “Ueber Polymitra Cabanisi n. sp.” Journal für Ornithologie Jg. 23, Folge 4 [4th ser.], Bd. 3, Heft 2, no. 130 (1875), 233, pl. 2, fig. 2–3 – type loc. Cameroon.

(Cabanis’ Bunting) for J. Cabanis, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. c. cabanisi (Reichenow, 1875)

E. c. cognominata (Grote, 1931)

Emberiza cabanisi cognominata Hermann Grote. “Emberiza cabanisi cognominata nom. nov.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 39, no. 3 (1931), 91–92.

Polymitra (Fringillaria) major Jean Cabanis. “Neue Arten von Angola: Polymitra (Fringillaria) major n. sp., Sycobrotus amaurocephalus n. sp., Halcyon pallidiventris n. sp., Bycanistes subquadratus n. sp., Pogonorhynchus frontatus n. sp., Francolinus scleropterus [sic] n. sp.” Journal für Ornithologie, Jg. 28, Folge 4 [4th ser.], Bd. 8, Heft 4, no. 152 (1880), 349 – type loc. Angola.

(Synonymous Bunting) Latin cognōmināta = with a (sur)name, synonymous.

E. c. orientalis (Shelley, 1882)

Fringillaria orientalis G. E. Shelley. “A Second List of Birds Recently Collected by Sir John Kirk in Eastern Africa.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1882, pt 2, no. 21 (1882), 308 – type coll. Mamboio [Mamboya?], German East Africa [Tanzania], J. Kirk.

(Eastern Bunting) Latin orientālis = eastern, from oriēns = rising (of the sun), and adjectival suffix -ālis = implying relationship.


Emberiza rutila Chestnut Bunting Pallas, 1776

Emberiza rutila P. S. Pallas “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga. Pt 3, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 698 (descr.). And Reise im östlichen Sibirien und bis in Dauurien. 1772stes Jahr. Pt 3 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 210 (narr.) – type coll. Akschinki [Akshinsky District], Dauria [Zabaykalsky Krai], Russia, 24 May 1772, P. S. Pallas?

(Red Bunting) Latin rutilā = red.


Emberiza koslowi Tibetan Bunting Bianchi, 1904

Emberiza koslowi V. Bianchi. “A New Species of Bunting from the Upper Mekong.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 14, no. 107 (1904), 80 –type coll. Re-tschu River [Za Qu?], Upper Mekong, Tibet?China, P. Koslow [P. Kozlov].

(Kozlov’s Bunting) for P. Kozlov, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza melanocephala Black-headed Bunting Scopoli, 1769

Emberiza melanocephala Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 142.

(Black-headed Bunting) Latinized from Greek μέλᾰνος, mélanos = genitive of black, from μέλᾱς, mélās = black, and κεφᾰλή, kephalḗ = head, with Latin -a = adjectival suffix.


Emberiza bruniceps Red-headed Bunting Brandt, 1841

Emberiza bruniceps J.-F. Brandt [J. F. von Brandt]. “Note sur trois espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux de Russie et de la Perse boréale, rapportées par M. Karélin.” Bulletin scientifique 9, no. 1, no. 193 (1841), 11 – type coll. Turcomannia [Turkmenistan], M. Karélin.

(Brown-headed Bunting) from Latin brūnus = brown, and Latin suffix -ceps = headed, from caput = head.


Emberiza sulphurata Yellow Bunting Temminck and Schlegel, 1848

Emberiza sulphurata Coenraad Jacob Temminck and Hermann Schlegel. ‘Animalia vertebrata: Aves’, in Ph. Fr. von Siebold, Fauna Japonica…: Aves (Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: Arnz, 1848), fasc. 8 (text), pl. 60 (ill.). Collated and Republished as vol. 4 (1850), 100, pl. 60.

(Sulfur Bunting) from Latin sulphur = sulfur, and -āta = adjectival suffix indicating the possession of a thing or quality.


Emberiza spodocephala Black-faced Bunting Pallas, 1776

Emberiza spodocephala P. S. Pallas. “Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga. Pt 3, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 698 (descr.). And Reise im östlichen Sibirien und bis in Dauurien. 1772stes Jahr. Pt 3 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 186n (narr.) – type coll. Konda River, Russia, 4 May 1772, P. S. Pallas?

(Ash-headed Bunting) Latinized from Greek σποδός, spodós = ashes, and κεφᾰλή, kephalḗ = head, with Latin -a = adjectival suffix.

E. s. spodocephala Pallas, 1776

E. s. personata Temminck, 1836

Emberiza personata C. J. Temminck. “Bruant masqué. Emberiza personata. Temm.” In C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G.M.J. Meiffren Laugier]. Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1836, livr. 98, pl. 580. Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 3: pl. 580, descr. on opp. page – type loc. Japan.

(Masked Bunting) Latin persōnātus, from persōna = mask, and -āta = adjectival suffix indicating the possession of a thing or quality.

E. s. sordida Blyth, 1845

Emberiza sordida E. Blyth. “Synopsis of the Indian Fringillidae.” In “‘On the Leiotrichane Birds of the Subhemalayas,’ with Some Additions and Annotations, a Synopsis of the Indian Pari, and of the Indian Fringillidae, by E. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society’s Museum.” By B. H. Hodgson. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 13 (“1844”), pt 2, no. 156, n.s., no. 72 (1845), 958 – type loc. Nepal.

(Sordid Bunting) Latin sordida = sordid, squalid, dirty.


Emberiza variabilis Grey Bunting Temminck, 1836

Emberiza variabilis C. J. Temminck. “Bruant variable. Emberiza personata. Temm.” In C. J. Temminck and Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse [G.M.J. Meiffren Laugier]. Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1836, livr. 98, pl. 580. Collated and republished as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770. Paris: F. G. Levrault, 1838, 3: pl. 583, fig. 2, descr. on following page – type loc. northern Japan.

(Variable Bunting) Latin variābilis = variable.

E. v. variabilis Temminck, 1836

E. v. musica (Kittlitz, 1858)

Zonotrichia musica F. H. von Kittlitz. Denkwürdigkeiten einer Reise nach dem russischen Amerika, nach Mikronesien und durch Kamtschatka. Gotha: Verlag von Justus Perthes, 1858, 2: 201 – type loc. Peter-Pauls-Hafen [Petropavlovsk], Kamchatka, Russia.

(Musical Bunting) Latin mūsica = musical.


Emberiza pallasi Pallas’s Reed Bunting (Cabanis, 1851)

Cynchramus pallasi Jean Cabanis. Singvögel. Vol. 1 of Museum Heineanum. Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine. Halberstadt: R. Frantz, 1851, 130n.

(Pallas’s Bunting) for P.S. Pallas, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. p. pallasi (Cabanis, 1851)

E. p. minor Middendorff, 1853

Emberiza schoeniclus var. minor A. Th. von Middendorff. Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien. Bd. 2, Theil 2 of Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens während der Jahre 1843 und 1844…. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1852, 144–146 – type loc. S’tanowój Gebirge [Stanovoy Range], Yakutia, Russia.

(Lesser Bunting) Latin minor = lesser, inferior, smaller, comparative of parva = small.

E. p. polaris Middendorff, 1853

Emberiza polaris A.Th. von Middendorff. Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien. Bd. 2, Theil 2 of Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens während der Jahre 1843 und 1844…. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1852, 146–147, pl. 13, fig. 1–3 – type loc. along the Boganida River, Yeniseysk Governorate [Krasnoyarsk Krai], Russia.

(Arctic Bunting) Latin polāris = polar, from polus = pole, from Greek πόλος, pólos = axis, pole, and adjectival suffix -āris = indicating a relationship or a pertaining to.

E. p. lydiae Portenko, 1929

Emberiza pallasi lydiae L.A. Portenko. “О взаимоотношении форм овсянки камышевой (Emberiza schoeniclus) и полярной (Е. pallasi)” [On the relationship between the forms of Reed Bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) and Pallas’s Reed Bunting (E. pallasi)]. Ежегодник Зоологического музея Академии наук СССР/Annuaire du Musee Zoologique de l’Academie des Sciences de URSS 29 (“1928”), no. 1 (1929), 78 – type loc. Lake Oroknor [Orog Lake], Valley of the Lakes, Mongolia.

(Lydia’s Bunting) for a Lydia.


Emberiza yessoensis Japanese Reed Bunting (Swinhoe, 1874)

Schœnicola yessoënsis R. Swinhoe. “On Some Birds from Hakodadi,in Northern Japan.” Ibis, 3rd ser., 4, no. 14 (1874), 161–162 – type coll. Hakodadi [Hakodate], Yesso [Hokkaido], Japan, April 187?, T. Blakiston.

(Hokkaido Bunting) for Yesso [Hokkaido], Japan.

E. y. yessoensis (Swinhoe, 1874)

E. y. continentalis Witherby, 1913

Emberiza yessoënsis continentalis H. F. Witherby. “Exhibition and description of a New Subspecies of Bunting (Emberiza yessoensis continentalis), from Nanking, China.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 31, no. 187 (1913), 74–75 – type coll. Yashwanen, Nanking [Nanjing], 31 January 1911, H. Lynes.

(Continental Bunting) Latin continentālis = continental, from continēns = continent, mainland, and adjectival suffix -ālis = implying a relationship to the noun.


Emberiza schoeniclus Common Reed Bunting (Linnaeus, 1758)

Fringilla Schœniclus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 182 – type loc. Europa = [Europe].

(Reed Bunting) Latinized from Greek σχοινικλος, skhoiniklos = unknown water/reed-related bird, from σχοῖνος, skhoînos = reed.

E. s. lusitanica Steinbacher, 1930

Emberiza schoeniclus lusitanica Friedrich Steinbacher. “Bemerkungen zur Systematik der Rohrammern, Emberiza schoeniclus (L.)” Journal für Ornithologie 78, Heft 4 (1930), 482 – type coll. Villafranca am Tajo [Villa Franca de Xira], Portugal, 2 April 1913, H. Weigold.

(Portuguese Bunting) for Lusitania [Portugal/West Spain], with Latin adjectival suffix -ca = characteristic of, like, typical, pertaining to.

E. s. schoeniclus (Linnaeus, 1758)

E. s. passerina Pallas, 1771

Emberiza passerina P. S. Pallas. “Anhang. Descriptiones fugitivae animalium atque plantarum annis 1768 et 1769 observatorum.” In Physicalische Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs im 1768 und 1769sten Jahre. Pt 1 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1771, 456–457 (descr.). And Physicalische Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs im 1768 und 1769sten Jahre. Pt 1 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1771, 443 (narr.) – type coll. Kargalinskaja Sloboda [Kargaly], Orenburg Oblast, Russia, 17–28 September 1769, P. S. Pallas?

(Sparrow-like Bunting) Latin passerīnus = sparrow-like, from passer = sparrow, and adjectical suffix -īnus = indicating a relationship of position, possession, or origin.

E. s. parvirostris Buturlin, 1910

Emberiza schoeniclus parvirostris S. A. Buturlin. “Малоклювая камышевая овсянка/Emberiza schoeniclus parvirostris.” Орнитологическій вҍстникъ/Messager ornithologique/Ornithologische Mitteilungen 1, no. 4 (1910), 262.

(Small-billed Bunting) Latin parvirōstris = small-billed, from parvus = small, little, and rōstrum = bill, beak, with -is = adjectival suffix.

E. s. pyrrhulina (Swinhoe, 1876)

Schœniclus pyrrhulinus R. Swinhoe. “On the Contensts of a Third Box of Birds from Hakodadi, in Northern Japan.” Ibis, 3rd ser., 6, no. 23 (1876), 333, pl. 8, fig. 2 – type coll. Hakodadi [Hakodate], Yesso [Hokkaido], T. Blakiston.

(Bullfinch-billed Bunting) for genus Pyrrhula = bullfinches, with Latin adjectival suffix -īna = indicating a relationship of position, possession, or origin.

E. s. pallidior Hartert, 1904

Emberiza schoeniclus pallidior Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1904, Heft 2, 197. Collated and republished as Bd. 1 (1910), 197 – type coll. Aiderli, Turkestan [Kazakhstan], 11 November 1899, N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny].

(Paler Bunting) Latin pallidior = paler, more pallid, comparative of pallidus = pale.

E. s. stresemanni Steinbacher, 1930

Emberiza schoeniclus stresemanni Friedrich Steinbacher. “Bemerkungen zur Systematik der Rohrammern, Emberiza schoeniclus (L.)” Journal für Ornithologie 78, Heft 4 (1930), 481 – type coll. Overbàsz [Vrbas], Serbia, 17 May 1930, H. Schenk.

(Stresemann’s Bunting) for Erwin Stresemann, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. s. ukrainae (Zarudny, 1917)

Cynchramus schoeniclus ukrainae N. A. Sarudny [N. A. Zarudny]. “Представители рода Cynchramus въ Русскомъ Туркестанҍ” [The representatives of the genus Cynchramus in the Russian Turkestan]. Орнитологическій вҍстникъ/Messager ornithologique/Ornithologische Mitteilungen 8, no. 1 (1917), 40–41 – type loc. Poltava [Poltava Oblast] and Kharkov [Kharkiv Oblast], Ukraine.

(Ukrainian Bunting) for the Ukraine, with Latin -ae = adjectival suffix.

E. s. incognita (Zarudny, 1917)

Cynchramus schoeniclus incognita N. A. Sarudny [N. A. Zarudny]. “Представители рода Cynchramus въ Русскомъ Туркестанҍ” [The representatives of the genus Cynchramus in the Russian Turkestan]. Орнитологическій вҍстникъ/Messager ornithologique/Ornithologische Mitteilungen 8, no. 1 (1917), 41 – type coll. Akmola [Nur-Sultan], Semipalatinsk [Semey], and Turgay, Kazakhstan.

(Unknown Bunting) Latin incognita = unknown.

E. s. witherbyi Jordans, 1923

Emberiza tschusii witherbyi A. von Jordans. “Neue Vogelrassen von den Balearen.” Falco 19, Sonderheft (1923), 4. Republished in extended form in “Die Ergebnisse meiner zweiten Reise nach Mallorca. Ergänzungen zo meiner ‘Vögelfauna Mallorcas.’ II Teil.” Journal für Ornithologie 72, Heft 3 (1924), 401–403 – type coll. Albufera S’Albufera, Mallorca, Spain, 13 June 1921, A. von Jordan.

(Witherby’s Bunting) for H.F. Witherby, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. s. intermedia Degland, 1849

Emberiza intermedia C.-D. Degland. Ornithologie européenne; ou Catalogue analytique et raisonné des oiseux observés en Europe. Paris: Librairie encyclopédique de Roret, 1849, 1: 264.

(Intermediate Bunting) Latin intermedia = intermediate, from inter = between, among, and media = middle, half.

E. s. tschusii Reiser and Almasy, 1898

Emberiza schoeniclus tschusii O. Reiser and G. von Almasy [G. Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós]. “Emberiza schoeniclus tschusii n. subsp.” In “Madártani betekintés a román Dobrudsába/Ornithologische Recognoscirungder [sic] rumänische Dobrudscha.” By G. V. von Almásy. Aquila 5, no. 1–3 (1898), 122–125 – type coll. along the Dunavat [Dunavăț], (Northern) Dobrudscha [Dobruja], Romania, 18 April 1897, G. Almásy.

(Tschusi’s Bunting) for V. von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. s. reiseri Hartert, 1904

Emberiza pyrrhuloides reiseri Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1904, Heft 2, 199. Collated and republished as Bd. 1 (1910), 199 – type coll. Lamia, (then) Thessaly, Greece, 4 December 1901.

(Reiser’s Bunting) for O. Reiser, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. s. caspia Ménétries, 1832

Emberiza caspia E. Ménétries. Catalogue raisonné des objets de zoologie : recueillis dans un voyage au Caucase et jusqu’aux frontières actuelles de la Perse. St.-Péterbourg [Saint Petersburg]: Académie impériale des sciences, 1832, 41–42 – type loc. Mount Bèchebermak, Bakou [Baku], Russia (now Azerbaijan).

(Caspian Bunting) Latin caspia = Caspian, for the Caspian Sea.

E. s. korejewi (Zarudny, 1907)

Cynchramus pyrrhuloides korejewi N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny]. “Eine Bemerkung über 2 Formen aus dem paläarktischen Gebiet.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 15, no. 5 (1907), 83–84 – type loc. Seistan [Sistan], Persia [Iran].

(Korejew’s Bunting) for B. Korejew, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. s. pyrrhuloides Pallas, 1811

Emberiza pyrhhuloides Petro Pallas [Peter Pallas]. Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica : sistens omnium animalium in extenso Imperio Rossico, et adjacentibus maribus observatorum recensionem, domicilia, mores et descriptiones, anatomen atque icones plurimorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: In officina Caesareum Academiae scientiarum impress, 1811, 49. Republished in 1831, 49 – type loc. downstream of Volga [Volga River] and Rhymnus [Ural River], Russia.

(Bullfinch-like Bunting) for genus Pyrrhula = bullfinches, with Latin interfix -o- = forming compounds, and suffix -oides = resembling, from Greek εἶδος, eîdos = appearance.

E. s. harterti Sushkin, 1906

Emberiza pyrrhuloides harterti P. Sushkin. “On New Species from Tarbagatai Range and Zaissan-noor.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 16, no. 122 (1906), 56–57 – type loc. Lacus Saissan-noor [Lake Zaysan] and Kara-Irtysh [Irtysh River], Russia.

(Hartert’s Bunting) for E. Hartert, with Latin = adjectival suffix.

E. s. centralasiae Hartert, 1904

Emberiza pyrrhuloides centralasiae Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1904, Heft 2, 199. Collated and republished as Bd. 1 (1910), 199 – type coll. Marabashi [Maralbexi County/Bachu County], East Turkestan [Xinjiang], China, January 1874, J. Biddulph.

(Central-Asian Bunting) for Central Asia, with Latin -ae = adjectival suffix.

E. s. zaidamensis Portenko, 1929

Emberiza schoenicla zaidamensis L.A. Portenko. “О взаимоотношении форм овсянки камышевой (Emberiza schoeniclus) и полярной (Е. pallasi)” [On the relationship between the forms of Reed Bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) and Pallas’s Reed Bunting (E. pallasi)]. Ежегодник Зоологического музея Академии наук СССР/Annuaire du Musee Zoologique de l’Academie des Sciences de URSS 29 (“1928”), no. 1 (1929), 66 – type loc. Zaidam Swamp [Qaidam Basin], Qinghai, China.

(Zaidam Bunting) for Zaidam Swamp [Qaidam Basin], Qinghai, China, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

Sittidae

SITTIDAE Lesson, 1828

R.P. Lesson. Manuel d’ornithologie; ou Description des genres et des principales espèces d’oiseaux. Paris: Roret, 1828, 1: 65 (list), 360 (descr.).


Sitta Linnaeus, 1758

Sitta Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae; per Regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 115.


Sitta europaea Eurasian Nuthatch Linnaeus, 1758

Sitta europæa Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae; per Regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 115 – type loc. Europæ [Europe], Americæ.

(European Nuthatch) for Europe.

S. e. caesia Wolf, 1810

Sitta caesia Johann Wolf. Landvögel. T. 1 of Taschenbuch der deutschen Vögelkunde oder kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel Deutschlands, Bernhard Meyer and Johann Wolf. Frankfurt am Main: Verlage von Friedrich Wilmans, 1810, 128–129.

(Blue-grey Nuthatch) Latin caesia = blueish grey.

S. e. europaea Linnaeus, 1758

S. e. hispaniensis Witherby, 1913

Sitta europæa hispaniensis H.F. Witherby. “Amended name, Sitta europæa hispaniensis, for S. minor Brehm.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 31, no. 187 (1913), 78 – type coll. Sierra de Grédos near Madrid, Spain, 11 June 1910, H. Lynes.

(Hispanic Nuthatch) for Hispania [Iberia = present-day Spain and Portugal], with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. e. cisalpina Sachtleben, 1919

Sitta europaea cisalpina H. Sachtleben. “Sitta europaea cisalpina subsp. nov.” Anzeiger der Ornithologischen Gesellschaft in Bayern, Bd. 1, no. 2 (1919), 7–8 – type coll. Ariccia, Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, Italy, 12 March 1906, C. Coli.

(Cisalpine Nuthatch) from Latin cis- = on this side of (i.e. viewed from Rome), and alpīna = alpine.

S. e. levantina Hartert, 1905

Sitta europaea levantina Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1905, Heft 3, 320. Collated and republished as vol. 1 (1910), 333 – type coll. Taurus [Taurus Mountains], Turkey, April 1876, C. Danford.

(Levantine Nuthatch) for the Levant, with Latin -ina = relational adjectival suffix.

S. e. persica Witherby, 1903

Sitta europæa persica Harry F. Witherby. “An Ornithological Journey in Fars, South-west Persia.” Ibis, 8th ser., 3, no. 12 (1903), 531–532 – type coll. Elburz Mountains [Alborz], Iran, 1902, Harry F. Witherby.

(Persian Nuthatch) for Persia [Iran].

S. e. caucasica Reichenow, 1901

Sitta caesia caucasica Anton Reichenow. “Sitta caesia caucasica Rchw. n. sp.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 9, no. 4 (1901), 53 – type coll. Naltschik [Nalchik], Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russia.

(Caucasus Nuthatch) for the Caucasus.

S. e. rubiginosa Tschusi and Zarudny, 1905

Sitta europaea rubiginosa Viktor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen and Nikolai Sarudny [Nikolai Zarudny]. “Sitta europaea rubiginosa Tsch. & Sarud. subsp. nov.” In Viktor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen. “Über palaearktische Formen IX.” Ornithologisches Jahrbuch 16, Heft 3–4 (1905), 140 – type coll. Asterabad [Gorgan], Persia [Iran], 9 October 1903, Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen.

(Rusty Nuthatch) Latin rūbīginōsā = rusty, rust-coloured, from rūbīgō = rust and from -ōsa = adjectival suffix (‘full of’).

S. e. asiatica Gould, 1835

Sitta Asiatica John Gould. The Birds of Europe. London: John Gould, 1835, pt 12, pl. 236. Collated and republished as The Birds of Europe. Vol. 3, Incessores. London: John Gould, 1837, pl. 236.

(Asian Nuthatch) Latin āsiātica = Asiatic, from Greek Ἀσιατικός, Asiatikós = Asiatic.

S. e. baicalensis Taczanowski, 1882

Sitta baicalensis L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. “Liste des oiseaux receuillis par le Dr Dybowski au Kamtschatka et dans les iles Comandores.” Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France pour l’année 1882 7 (1882), 385–386 – type loc. Irkutsk, Lake Baikal, Daourie [Transbaikal], Russia.

(Baikal Nuthatch) for Baikal, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. e. albifrons Taczanowski, 1882

Sitta albifrons L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. “Liste des oiseaux receuillis par le Dr Dybowski au Kamtschatka et dans les iles Comandores.” Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France pour l’année 1882 7 (1882), 385–386 – type coll. Kamtschatka [Kamchatka Peninsula], B. Dybowski.

(White-fronted Nuthatch) from Latin albus, and Latin frōns = forehead.

S. e. sakhalinensis Buturlin, 1916

Sitta europaea sakhalensis S.A. Buturlin. “Краткий обзор семейства поползней (Sittidae).” [A brief overview of the nuthatch family (Sittidae).] Труды Петроградского общества естествоиспытателей [Proceedings of the Imperial Saint Petersburg Society of Naturalists], t. 44, no. 2 (1916), 158, 170.

(Sakhalin Nuthatch) for Sakhalin, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. e. takatsukasai Momiyama, 1931

Sitta europæa takatsukasai T.T. Momiyama. “The Sittidae or Family of Nuthatches.” [In Japanese.] Kaidori 2, no. 8 (1931), 1–24.

(Takatsukasa’s Nuthatch) for Nobusuke Takatsukasa.

S. e. clara Stejneger, 1887

Sitta amurensis clara Leonhard Stejneger. “Review of Japanese Birds II. Tits and Nuthatches.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 9, no. 578 (1887), 392–393 – type coll. Yesso [Ezo], Japan, 17 October 1882, Thomas W. Blakiston.

(Bright Nuthatch) Latin clāra = clear, bright.

S. e. hondoensis Buturlin, 1916

Sitta europaea hondoensis S.A. Buturlin. “Краткий обзор семейства поползней (Sittidae).” [A brief overview of the nuthatch family (Sittidae).] Труды Петроградского общества естествоиспытателей [Proceedings of the Imperial Saint Petersburg Society of Naturalists], t. 44, no. 2 (1916), 160, 171.

(Hondo Nuthatch) for Hondo [Honshū], Japan, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. e. amurensis Swinhoe, 1871

Sitta amurensis Robert Swinhoe. “A Revised Catalogue of the Birds of China and Its Islands, with Descriptions of New Species, References to Former Notes, and Occasional Remarks.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1871, pt 2, no. 22 (1871), 350 – type loc. Amoorland [Amur Oblast], Russia.

(Amur Nuthatch) for Amur Krai (Аму́рский край) [Amur Oblast], with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. e. roseilia Bonaparte, 1850

Sitta roseilia Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E.J. Brill, 1850, 227 – type loc. Japan.

(Rosy-flanked Nuthatch) from Latin roseī = pink, rose-coloured, rosy, and īlia = feminine of īlium = flanks.

S. e. bedfordi Ogilvie-Grant, 1909

Sitta bedfordi W.R. Ogilvie-Grant. “Exhibition and Description of a New Species of Nuthatch (Sitte bedfordi) from the Island of Quelpart.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 23, no. 144 (1909), 59 – type coll. Quelpart Island [Jeju Island], S. Corea [South Korea], 11 September 1905, M.P. Anderson.

(Bedford’s Nuthatch) for Herbrand Russell, 11th Duke of Bedford.

S. e. seorsa Portenko, 1955

Sitta europaea seorsa L.A. Portenko. “Новые подвиды воробьиных птиц (Aves, Passeriformes).” [New subspecies of passerine birds (Aves, Passeriformes).] Труды Зоологического института Академии наук СССР, t. 18, (1955), 497–498 – type coll. eastern Tian Shan, August 1895, P.K. Kozlov.

(Isolated Nuthatch) Latin seorsa = sundered, separate, apart.

S. e. sinensis Verreaux, 1871

Sitta sinensis J. Verreaux. “Note sur les espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux recueillis par M. l’Abbé Armand David dans les montanges du Thibet chinois.” Bulletin des Nouvelles archive du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris 6 (1870), 34Kiu-Kiang [Jiujiang], China, 2 September 1868, Armand David.

(Chinese Nuthatch) Latin sinēnsis = Chinese, from Sīnae = China, and -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. e. formosana Buturlin, 1911

Sitta formosana S.A. Buturlin. “Интересные находки.” [Interesting findings.] Наша охота [Our hunt] 8 (1911), 51 – type coll. central Formosa [Taiwan], S.A. Buturlin.

(Formosa Nuthatch) for Formosa, with Latin -āna = relational adjectival suffix.


Sitta arctica Siberian Nuthatch Buturlin, 1907

Sitta arctica S.A. Buturlin. “Интересные находки.” [Interesting findings.] Псовая и ружейная охота [Dog and gun hunting], no. 6 (1907), 87. Republished as “Neue Ost-Asiatische Formen.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 15, no. 5 (1907), 79 – type coll. Werchojansk [Verkhoyansk], Russia, March 1906?, S.A. Buturlin.

(Northern Nuthatch) Latin arctica = northern, arctic, from Greek ἀρκτικός, arktikós = northern, of the (Great) Bear.


Sitta nagaensis Chestnut-vented Nuthatch Godwin-Austen, 1874

Sitta nagaensis H.H. Godwin-Austen. “Descriptions of Ten New Birds from the Nágá Hills and Munipúr Valley, N.E. Frontier of Bengal.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1874, pt 1, no. 3 (1874), 44 – type coll. Naga Hills, India/Myanmar, 1872–1873, H.H. Godwin-Austen.

(Naga Nuthatch) for the Naga Hills, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. n. montium La Touche, 1899

Sitta montium J.D.D. La Touche. “Notes on the Birds of North-west Fokhien.” Ibis, 7th ser., 5, no. 19 (1899), 404 – type loc. Kuatun [Guadun], Wuyishan City, Fujian Province, China.

(Mountain Nuthatch) Latin montium = mountains.

S. n. nagaensis Godwin-Austen, 1874

S. n. grisiventris Kinnear, 1920

Sitta europæa grisiventris N.B. Kinnear. “Exhibition and Descrion of a New Species of Nuthatch (Sitta europæa grisiventris) from the Chin Hills.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 40, no. 251 (1920), 142Mount Victoria [Nat Ma Taung], Chin Hills, Myanmar, 24 March 1904, G. Rippon.

(Grey-bellied Nuthatch) from Latin grīseum = grey, and ventris = bellied, from venter = belly.


Sitta cashmirensis Kashmir Nuthatch Brooks, 1871

Sitta Cashmirensis W.E. Brooks. “Notes on the Ornithology of Cashmir.” Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, September (1871), 209. Extended and republished in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 41, pt 2, no. 1 (1872), 75 – type coll. Cashmir [Kashmir], (present-day) India, May–June 1871, W.E. Brooks.

(Kashmir Nuthatch) for Kashmir, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.


Sitta castanea Indian Nuthatch Lesson, 1830

Sitta castanea R.P. Lesson. Traité d’ornithologie; ou Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Paris: F.G. Levrault, 1830, livr. 4, 316. Collated and republished in 1831, 316.

(Chestnut Nuthatch) Latin castanea = chestnut, chestnut-tree.

S. c. castanea Lesson, 1830

S. c. prateri Whistler and Kinnear, 1932

Sitta castanea prateri Hugh Whistler and N.B. Kinnear. “The Vernay Scientific Survey of the Eastern Ghats (Ornithological Section).” Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 35, no. 3 (1932), 522 – type loc. Vizagapatam district.

(Prater’s Nuthatch) for S.H. Prater.


Sitta cinnamoventris Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch Blyth, 1842

Sitta cinnamoventris E. Blyth. “Report of Curator to the Museum of the Asiatic Society.” In “Proceedings of the Asiatic Society,” H.T. Prinsep. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 11, pt 1, no. 125, n.s., no. 41 (1842), 459.

(Cinnamon-bellied Nuthatch) from Latin cinnamum = cinnamon, and ventris = bellied, from venter = belly.

S. c. almorae Kinnear and Whistler, 1930

Sitta castaneoventris almoræ N.B. Kinnear and Hugh Whistler. “Description of a New Subspecies of Nuthatch (Sitta castaneoventris almoræ).” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 51, no. 345 (1930), 27 – type coll. Ramganga Valley, Uttarakhand State, India, 29 October 1886, A. Hume.

(Almora Nuthatch) for Almora, Uttarakhand State, India.

S. c. cinnamoventris Blyth, 1842

S. c. koelzi Vaurie, 1950

Sitta europaea koelzi Charles Vaurie. “Notes on Some Asiatic Nuthatches and Creepers.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1472 (1950), 5–8 – type coll. Patkai Hills, India/Myanmar, 2 September 1888, Ernst Hartert.

(Koelz’s Nuthatch) for Walter Koelz.

S. c. tonkinensis Kinnear, 1936

Sitta castanea tonkinensis N.B. Kinnear. “Description of a New Race of Nuthatch, Sitta castanea tonkinensis, from Laos, Indo-China.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 56, no. 392 (1936), 71 – Napé, Laos, 28 January 1928, J. Delacour and W.P. Lowe.

(Tonkin Nuthatch) for Tonkin, Indo-china [Vietnam], with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.


Sitta neglecta Burmese Nuthatch Walden, 1870

Sitta neglecta Arthur Walden [Arthur Hay]. “Descriptions of Some New Species of Birds from Southern Asia.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th ser., 5, no. 27 (1870), 218 – type loc. Karen Hills, Myanmar.

(Overlooked Nuthatch) Latin neglēcta = overlooked.


Sitta himalayensis White-tailed Nuthatch Jardine & Selby, 1835

Sitta himalayensis William Jardine and Prideaux John Selby. Illustrations of Ornithology. Edinburgh: W.H. Lizars, 1835, 3: pl. 144 (descr. opp. p.) – type loc. Himalayan district, British India.

(Himalayan Nuthatch) for the Himalayas, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.


Sitta victoriae White-browed Nuthatch Rippon, 1904

Sitta victoriæ G. Rippon. “On New Species of Birds from the Southern Chin Hills.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 14, no. 107 (1904), 84 – type coll. Mount Victoria [Nat Ma Taung], Myanmar, 14 March 1904, G. Rippon.

(Mount Victoria Nuthatch) for Mount Victoria, Myanmar.


Sitta pygmaea Pygmy Nuthatch Vigors, 1839

Sitta pymæa N.A. Vigors. “Ornithology.” In The Zoology of Captain Beechey’s Voyage; Compiled from the Collections and Notes Made by Captain Beechey, the Officers and Naturalist of the Expedition, during a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring’s Straits Performed in His Majesty’s Ship Blossom, under the Command of Captain F.W. Beechey… in the Years 1825, 26, 27 and 28, edited by F.W. Beechey. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1839, 25, pl. 4, fig. 1 – type coll. Monterey, California, USA, 1–5 January 1827 or 29 October–17 November 1828.

(Dwarf Nuthatch) Latin pygmaea = dwarf, pygmy.

S. p. melanotis van Rossem, 1929

Sitta pygmaea melanotis A.J. van Rossem. “The Races of Sitta pygmaea Vigors.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 42, no. 20 (1929), 176 – type coll. Chiricahua Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona, USA, 19 September 1919, H.H. Kimball.

(Black-eared Nuthatch) Latinized from Greek μελανός, melanós = black, from μέλᾱς, mélās = black, and ὠτός, ōtós = eared, genitive of οὖς, oûs = ear.

S. p. pygmaea Vigors, 1839

S. p. leuconucha Anthony, 1889

Sitta pygmæa leuconucha Alfred W. Anthony. “New Birds from Lower California, Mexico.” Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 2nd ser., 2, no. 6 (1889), 77–78 – San Pedro Mountain, Lower California [Baja California Peninsula], Mexico, 28 April 1889, A.W. Anthony.

(White-nape Nuthatch) Latin leucos = white, from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and from Latin nucha = nape, from Arabic نُخَاع‎, nuḵāʿ = spinal marrow and نُقْرَة,‎ nuqra = hollow of the neck.

S. p. elii Phillips, 1986

Sitta pygmaea elii Allan R. Philips. The Known Birds of North and Middle America. Pt 1, Hirundinidae to Mimidae; Certhiidae. Denver, CO: A.R. Phillips, 1986, 107 – type coll. Mesa de San Antonio, San Antonio de las Alazanas, Coahuila, Mexico, 20 February 1983, Aldegundo Garza de Leo.

(Ely’s Nuthatch) for Charles Adelbert Ely.

S. p. flavinucha van Rossem, 1939

Sitta pygmaea flavinucha A.J. van Rossem. “Four New Races of Sittidae and Certhiidae from Mexico.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 52, no. 2 (1939), 5 – type coll. Huitzilac, Morelos, Mexico, 31 December 1892, E.W. Nelson.

(Yellow-naped Nuthatch) from Latin flāvī = yellow, from flāvus = yellow, golden, and from Latin nucha = nape, from Arabic نُخَاع‎, nuḵāʿ = spinal marrow and نُقْرَة,‎ nuqra = hollow of the neck.

S. p. brunnescens Norris, 1958

Sitta pymaea brunnescens R.A. Norris. “Comparative biosystematics and life history of the nuthatches Sitta pygmaea and Sitta pusilla.” University of California Publications in Zoology 56, no. 2 (1958), 148.

(Brownish Nuthatch) Latin brunnescēns = brownish.


Sitta pusilla Brown-headed Nuthatch Latham, 1790

Sitta pusilla Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae: complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates: adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c.. Londini [London]: Leigh and Sotheby, 1790, 1: 263.

(Tiny Nuthatch) Latin pusilla = very small, tiny.

S. p. pusilla Latham, 1790

S. p. insularis Bond, 1931

Sitta pusilla insularis James Bond. “A New Nuthatch from the Island of Grand Bahama.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 83 (1931), 389 – Grand Bahama, Bahamas, 17 March 1931, James Bond.

(Island Nuthatch) Latin īnsulāris = insular, from īnsula = island, and -āris = relational adjectival suffix.


Sitta whiteheadi Corsican Nuthatch Sharpe, 1884

Sitta whiteheadi R. Bowdler Sharpe. “On an Apparently New Species of European Nuthatch.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1884, pt 2 (1884), 233. And “Further Notes on Whitehead’s Nuthatch.” Proceedings, pt 2 (1884), 414–415, pl. 36 – type coll. Corsica, France, 1882–1883, John Whitehead.

(Whitehead’s Nuthatch) for John Whitehead.


Sitta ledanti Algerian Nuthatch Vielliard, 1976

Sitta ledanti J. Vielliard. “La Sitelle kabyle.” Alauda 44, no. 3 (1976), 351 – type col. Djebel Babor, Petite Kabylie, Algeria, 5 July 1976, J. Vielliard.

(Ledant’s Nuthatch) for Jean-Paul Ledant.


Sitta krueperi Krüper’s Nuthatch Pelzeln, 1863

Sitta krüperi August von Pelzeln “Über zwei von Dr. Krüper zu Smyrna gesammelte Vogelarten.” Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bd. 48, Abt. 1, Heft 8 (1863), 149. Republished as “Zwei von Dr. Krüper zu Smyrna gesammelte Vogelarten.” Journal für Ornithologie 14, no. 79 (1866), 49 – type coll. Smyrna [İzmir], Turkey, Theodor Krüper.

(Krüper’s Nuthatch) for Theodor Krüper.


Sitta yunnanensis Yunnan Nuthatch Ogilvie-Grant, 1900

Sitta yunnanensis R. Ogilvie Grant [R. Ogilvie-Grant] “Sitta yunnanensis, n. sp.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 10, no. 68 (1900), 37 – type coll. Wei-yuan [Weiyuan], Yunnan, China, 12 March 1899, A.W.S. Wingate.

(Yunnan Nuthatch) for Yunnan, China, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.


Sitta canadensis Red-breasted Nuthatch Linnaeus, 1766

Sitta canadensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae; per Regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 177 – type loc. Canada.

(Canadese Nuthatch) for Canada, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.


Sitta villosa Chinese Nuthatch Verreaux, J, 1865

Sitta villosa J. Verreaux in A. Milne Edwards [A. Milne-Edwards]. “Rapport sur quelques aquisitions nouvelles faite par la Galerie ornithologique du Muséum.” Bulletin des Nouvelles archive du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris 1 (1865), 78 – type coll. north of Pékin [Bejing], China, Armand David.

(Hari Nuthatch) Latin villōsa = hairy, from villus = hair, and -ōsa = adjectival suffix, full of.

S. v. bangsi Stresemann, 1929

Sitta canadensis bangsi E. Stresemann. “Neue Formen aus Nord-Kansu III.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 37, no. 3 (1929), 74 – type coll. South Tetung Mountains, Kansu [Gansu], China, 6 September 1927, W. Beick.

(Bangs’ Nuthatch) for Outram Bangs.

S. v. villosa Verreaux, 1865

S. v. corea Ogilvie-Grant, 1906

Sitta corea R. Ogilvie Grant. “On a New Species of Nuthatch from Corea.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 16, no. 124 (1906), 87–88 – type coll. Min-gyong, south-east of Seoul, Corea [South Korea], 30 November 1905, M.P. Anderson.

(Korean Nuthatch) for Corea [Korea].


Sitta leucopsis White-cheeked Nuthatch Gould, 1850

Sitta leucopsis John Gould. The Birds of Asia. London: John Gould, 1950, pt 1, pl. 46. Republished as vol. 2, pl. 46, text opp. p. Republished in “Descriptions of Three New Indian Birds.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd ser., 6, no. 32 (1850), 141 – type coll. Himalaya Mountains, British India, Captain Hay [Arthur Hay].

(White-faced Nuthatch) from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and Greek ὄψῐς, ópsis = faced, from ὄψ, óps = eye, face, and -σῐς, -sis = processual adjectival suffix.


Sitta przewalskii Przevalski’s Nuthatch Berezowski and Bianchi, 1891

Sitta Przewalskii M. Berezowski and V. Bianchi. Птитсы гансуйскаго путешествія Г.Н. Потанина 1884–1887/Aves expeditionis Potanini per provinciam Gan-su et confinia 1884–1887. [The birds of the Gansu expedition of G.N. Potanin.] Sanktpeterburg [St. Petersburg]: Typography Imperial Academy of Science, 1891, 119–120. Republished in “Die Vögel der westchinesischen Provinz Gan-su,” edited and translated by Karl Deditius. Journal für Ornithologie, 5th ser., 45, no. 1 (1897), 74–75 – Gan-su [Gansu], China, 1884–1887, M. Berezowski.

(Przewalski’s Nuthatch) for N.M. Przewalski.


Sitta carolinensis White-breasted Nuthatch Latham, 1790

Sitta carolinensis Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae: complectens avium divisionem in classes, ordines, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates: adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, &c.. Londini [London]: Leigh and Sotheby, 1790, 1: 262.

(Carolina Nuthatch) for the Carolinas (North and South Carolina), USA, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

S. c. carolinensis Latham, 1790

S. c. aculeata Cassin, 1856

Sitta aculeata John Cassin. “Descriptions and Notes on Birds in the Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and in the National Museum, Washington.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, no. 5 (1856), 254 – type loc. California, USA.

(Prickly Nuthatch) Latin acūleāta = prickly, from aculeus = thorn, spine, sting, and -āta = possessive adjectival suffix.

S. c. alexandrae Grinnell, 1926

Sitta carolinensis alexandrae Joseph Grindell. “A New Race of the White-breasted Nuthatch from Lower California.” University of California Publications in Zoology 21, no. 15 (1926), 405–410 – Arroyo La Encantada, Sierra de San Pedro Mártir, Lower California [Baja California Peninsula], Mexico, 10 October 1925, J. Grindell.

(Alexander’s Nuthatch) for Annie M. Alexander.

S. c. tenuissima Grinnell, 1918

Sitta carolinensis tenuissima Joseph Grindell. “Seven New or Noteworthy Birds from East-central California.” Condor 20, no. 2 (1918), 88–89 – type coll. Hanaupah Canyon, Panamint Mountains, Inyo Coounty, California, USA, 1 June 1917, J. Dixon.

(Slender Nuthatch) Latin tenuissima = thinnest, slenderest, from tenuis = thin, weak, slender, and -issima = superlative adjectival suffix.

S. c. nelsoni Mearns, 1902

Sitta carolinensis nelsoni Edgar A. Mearns. “Descriptions of Three New Birds from the Southern United States.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 24, no. 1274 (1902), 923–926 – type coll. Huachuca Mountains, Cochise County, Arisona, USA, 17 October 1893, Edgar A. Mearns.

(Nelson’s Nuthatch) for E.W. Nelson.

S. c. mexicana Nelson and Palmer, 1894

Sitta carolinensis mexicana E.W. Nelson and T.S. Palmer. “Descriptions of Five New Birds from Mexico.” Auk, o.s., 19, n.s., 11, no. 1 (1894), 45 – type coll. Mount Orizaba, Puebla, Mexico, 26 April 1893, E.W. Nelson.

(Mexican Nuthatch) for Mexico, with Latin -āna = relational adjectival suffix.

S. c. lagunae Brewster, 1891

Sitta carolinensis lagunæ William Brewster. “Descriptions of Seven Supposed New North American Birds.” Auk, o.s., 16, n.s., 8, no. 2 (1891), 149 – type coll. Sierra de la Laguna, Lower California [Baja California Peninsula], Mexico, 5 May 1887, M. Abbott Frazar.

(Sierra de la Laguna Nuthatch) for Sierra de la Laguna, Baja California Peninsula, Mexico.


Sitta neumayer Western Rock Nuthatch Michahelles, 1830

Sitta Neumayer K. Michahelles. “Ueber einige Dalmatinische Vertebraten, die zugleich im westlichen Asien vorkommen.” Isis von Oken 23, Heft 8 (1830), col. 814–815 – type coll. Ragusa [Dubrovnik], Croatia, H. Neumayer.

(Neumayer’s Nuthatch) for H. Neumayer.

S. n. neumayer Michahelles, 1830

S. n. tschitscherini Zarudny, 1904

Sitta tschitscherini N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny]. “Über neue Arten und Formen.” Ornithologisches Jahrbuch 15, Heft 5–6 (1904), 218–219 – type loc. Ispahan [Isfahan], Persia {Iran].

(Chicherin’s Nuthatch) for T.S. Chicherin.

S. n. plumbea Koelz, 1950

Sitta neumayer plumbea Walter Koelz. “New Subspecies of Birds from Southwestern Asia.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1452 (1950), 9 – type coll. Masghun, Kuh-i-Jamal Range, Kirman [Kerman Province], Iran, 10 February 1940, W. Koelz.

(Lead-coloured Nuthatch) Latin plumbea = lead-filled, from plumbum = lead, and -eus = adjectival suffix, source of.


Sitta tephronota Eastern Rock Nuthatch Sharpe, 1872

Sitta tephronota R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Description of Some New Species of Birds in the National Collection.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th ser., 10, no. 60 (1872), 450–451 – type loc. Central Asia.

(Ash-backed Nuthatch) Latinized from Greek τεφρός, tephrós = ash-coloured, from τέφρᾱ, téphrā = ashes, and -νῶτος, -nōtos = -backed, from νῶτον, nōton = back.

S. t. dresseri Zarudny and Buturlin, 1906

Sitta dresseri N.A Sarudny [N.A. Zarudny] and S.A. Buturlin. “Sitta dresseri spec. nov.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 14, no. 8 (1906), 132,

(Dresser’s Nuthatch) for H.E. Dresser.

S. t. obscura Zarudny and Loudon, 1905

Sitta syriaca obscura N.A Sarudny [N.A. Zarudny] and Harald Loudon [Harald von Loudon]. “Vorläufige Beschreibung zweier ornithologischen Neuheiten aus West-Persien.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 13, no. 5 (1905), 76 – type loc. between Caspian Sean and Beluchistan [Balochistan].

(Dusky Nuthatch) Latin obscūra = dusky.

S. t. tephronota Sharpe, 1872

S. t. iranica (Buturlin, 1916)

Rupisitta tephronota iranica S.A. Buturlin. “Краткий обзор семейства поползней (Sittidae).” [A brief overview of the nuthatch family (Sittidae).] Труды Петроградского общества естествоиспытателей [Proceedings of the Imperial Saint Petersburg Society of Naturalists], t. 44, no. 2 (1916), 165.

(Iranian Nuthatch) Latin irānica = Iranian.


Sitta frontalis Velvet-fronted Nuthatch Swainson, 1820

Sitta frontalis Williams Swainson. Zoological Illustrations; or Original Figures and Descriptions of New, Rare, or Interesting Animals, Selected Chiefly from the Classes of Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology, and Arranged on the Principles of Cuvier and Other Modern Zoologists. London: Baldwin, Craddock, and Joy, 1820, 1: pl. 2 (ill.), descr. opp. p. – type coll. Ceylon [Sri Lanka], J. Banks.

(Black-fronted Nuthatch) Latin frontālis = frontal, from frōns = forehead, and -ālis = relational adjectival suffix.

S. f. frontalis Swainson, 1820

S. f. saturatior Hartert, 1902

Sitta frontalis saturatior Ernst Hartert. “On Birds from Pahang, Eastern Malay Peninsula.” Novitates zoologicae 9, no. 3 (1902), 573 – type coll. Mount Tahan, Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia, September–October 1901, John Waterstradt.

(Intense Nuthatch) from Latin saturat = to be full, replete, and -ior = comparative adjectival suffix.

S. f. corallipes (Sharpe, 1888)

Dendrophila corallipes R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Diagnoses of Some New Species of Birds Obtained on the Mountain of Kina Balu by Mr. John Whitehead.” Ibis, 5th ser., 6, no. 24 (1888), 479 – type coll. Kina Balu [Mount Kinabalu], Sabah, Malaysia, John Whitehead.

(Red-footed Nuthatch) from Latin corallinus = coral-red, from corallium = coral, and -īnus = relational adjectival suffix, and pes, pedis = foot.

S. f. palawana Hartert, 1905

Sitta frontalis palawana Ernst Hartert. “On Three New Subspecies, Regulus r. anglorum, Sitta frontalis palawana, Lipangus holerhythrus rosenbergi.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 16, no. 118 (1905), 11–12 – Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines, January 1898, W. Doherty.

(Palawan Nuthatch) for Palawan, Philippines.

S. f. velata Temminck, 1821

Sitta velata C.J. Temminck. “Torchepot voilé. Sitta velata.” In Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complement aux planches enluminées de Buffon, Temminck and G.M.J. Jerôme Meiffren Laugier. Paris: G. Dufour et E. d’Ocagne, 1821, livr. 12, pl. 72, fig. 3. Collated and republished as Paris: F.G. Levrault, 1838, vol. 4, pl. 72, fig. 3, descr. on foll. pp. – type loc. Java and Sumatra, Indonesia.

(Veiled Nuthatch) Latin vēlāta = veiled.


Sitta solangiae Yellow-billed Nuthatch (Delacour and Jabouille, 1930)

Calositta solangiae J. Delacour and P. Labouille. “Descriptions de trente oiseaux de l’Indochine française.” Revue d’histoire naturelle. Deuxième partie, l’Oiseau 11, no. 7 (1930), 395. Stand-alone reprint as Descriptions de trente oiseaux de l’Indochine française. Paris: Société nationale d’acclimatation de France, n.d. [1930?], 3–4 – type coll. Loquiho, Chapa, Tonkin, French Indochina [Vietnam], 17 November 1929, J. Delacour and P. Labouille.

(Solange’s Nuthatch) for S.A. la princess Paul Murat [Solange Isabelle Murat, née La Rochefoucauld].

S. s. solangiae (Delacour & Jabouille, 1930)

S. s. fortior Delacour and Greenway, 1939

Sitta solangiae fortior J. Delacour and J.C. Greenway. “Seven New Races from Indo-China.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 59, no. 423 (1939), 133–134 – type coll. Pic de Langbian, Dalat [Đà Lạt], Annam [Vietnam], 14 March 1939, J. Delacour and J.C. Greenway.

(Stronger Nuthatch) Latin fortior = braver, stronger), comparative of fortis = strong.

S. s. chienfengensis Cheng, Ting and Wang, 1964

Sitta frontalis chienfengensis Tso-Hsin Cheng, Wen-Ning Ting and Tze-Yu Wang. “海南岛绒额鳾的一新亚种——尖峯绒额鳾.” [A new subspecies of the Velvet-fronted Nuthatch from Hainan – Sitta frontalis chienfengensis, subsp. nov.], Acta zootaxonomica Sinica 1, no. 1 (1964), 4 – type coll. Chien-feng-ling [Jianfeng Ling], Hainan, China, 29 May and 7 June 1963, Wen-Ning Ting and Tze-Yu Wang.

(Jianfang Nuthatch) for Chien-feng-ling [Jianfeng Ling] Mountain, Hainan, China, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.


Sitta oenochlamys Sulphur-billed Nuthatch (Sharpe, 1877)

Dendrophila œnochlamys R. Bowdler Sharpe. “On the Birds Collected by Professor J.B. Steere in the Philippine Archipelago.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd ser., 1 (1877), 338, pl. 53, fig. 3 – type coll. Guimaras, Philippines, J.B. Steere, December 1874 or January 1875.

(Wine-robed Nuthatch) Latinized from Greek οἶνος, oînos = wine, and χλᾰμῠ́ς, khlamús = mantle, robe.

S. o. mesoleuca (Ogilvie-Grant, 1894)

Dendrophila mesoleuca W.R. Ogilvie-Grant. “New Species from Northern Luzon.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 3, no. 19 (1904), 49. Extended and republished in “On the Birds of the Philippine Islands. Part II: The Highlands of North Luzon, 5000 feet.” With Field-notes by John Whitehead. Ibis, 6th ser., 6, no. 24 (1894), 512–513 – type coll. north Luzon, Philippines, January–March 1894, J. Whitehead.

(White-striped Nuthatch) Latin mesoleucos = black gem with white stripe, from Greek μέσος, mésos = middle, and λευκός, leukós = white.

S. o. isarog Rand and Rabor, 1967

Sitta frontalis isarog Austin L. Rand and Dioscoro S. Rabor. “New Birds from Luzon, Philippine Islands.” Fieldiana. Zoology 51, no. 6, no. 1029 (1967), 89 – type coll. Mount Isarog, Camarines Sur, Philippines, 28 March 1961, D.S. Rabor.

(Mount Isarog Nuthatch) for Mount Isarog, Camarines Sur, Philippines.

S. o. lilacea (Whitehead, 1897)

Dendrophila lilacea John Whitehead. “On Species of Dendrophila.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 6, no. 45 (1897), 49 – type coll. Samar Island, Visayas, Philippines, John Whitehead?.

(Lilac-coloured Nuthatch) from Latin līlium = lily, and -āceus = adjectival suffix (resembling).

S. o. apo (Hachisuka, 1930)

Callisitta frontalis apo Masauji Hachisuka. “Contributions to the Birds of the Philippines, Volume 2.” Ornithological Society of Japan Supplementary Publication 14 (1930), 203 – type coll. Mount Apo, Mindanao, Philippines, M. Hachisuka.

(Mount Apo Nuthatch) for Mount Apo, Mindanao, Philippines.

S. o. zamboanga Rand and Rabor, 1957

Sitta frontalis zamboanga Austin L. Rand and D.S. Rabor. “New Birds from the Philippines.” Fieldiana. Zoology 42, no. 2, no. 833 (1957), 16 – type coll. Mount Malindang, Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines, 19 April 1956, D.S. Rabor.

(Zamboanga Nuthatch) for Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines.

S. o. oenochlamys (Sharpe, 1877)


Sitta azurea Blue Nuthatch Lesson, R, 1830

Sitta azurea R.P. Lesson. Traité d’ornithologie; ou Tableau méthodique des ordres, sous-ordres, familles, tribus, genres, sous-genres et races d’oiseaux. Paris: F.G. Levrault, 1830, livr. 4, 316. Collated and republished in 1831, 316.

(Blue Nuthatch) Latin azurea = deep blue colour, from Arabic لَازُوَرْد, lāzuward = lapis lazuli, from Persian لاجورد, lâjvard = lapis lazuli.

S. a. expectata (Hartert, 1914)

Callisitta azurea expectata Ernst Hartert. “Description of a New Blue Nuthatch – Callisitta azurea expectata – from the Malay Peninsula.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 35, no. 202 (1914), 34 – type coll. Bukit Frazer [Frazer’s Hill], Pahang, Malaysia, 10 October 1909.

(Expected Nuthatch) Latin expectāta = awaited, expected.

S. a. nigriventer (Robinson and Kloss, 1919)

Poliositta azurea nigriventer H.C. Robinson and C. Boden Kloss. “Exhibition of Types and Descriptions of New Species of Malayan Birds: Garrulax pectoralis meridionalis, Gecinus canus meridionalis, Gecinus vittatus connectens, Iyngipicus canicapillus suffusus, Eurylaimus javanicus brookei, Eurylaimus ochromalus kalamantan, Serilophus lunatus stolidus, Rhinocichla mitrata major, Poliositta azurea nigriventer, Ophrydomis albogularis moultoni.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 40, no. 245 (1919), 17 – type coll. Tjibodas [Cibodas], Gedeh [Mount Gede], West Java, Indonesia, 17 February 1916, H.C. Robinson,

(Black-bellied Nuthatch) from Latin niger = (shiny) black, and venter = belly.

S. a. azurea Lesson, 1830


Sitta magna Giant Nuthatch Wardlaw-Ramsay, 1876

Sitta magna R. Wardlaw Ramsay [R. Wardlaw-Ramsay]. “On an Undescribed Species of Nuthatch and Another Bird from Karen-nee.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1876, pt 3, no. 44 (1876), 677, pl. 63. Republished as “Sitta magna.” In “Recently-described Species, Republications,” edited by Alan Hume. Stray Feathers 5, no. 3–4 (1877), 343 – type coll. Karen-nee [Kayin State], Myanmar, January 1876.

(Great Nuthatch) Latin magna = great, large.

S. m. ligea Deignan, 1938

Sitta magna ligea H.G. Deignan. “A New Nuthatch from Yunnan.” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 97, no. 9, no. 1436 (1938), 1–2 – Likiang [Lijiang], Yunnan, China, August 1923, Joseph F. Rock.

(Melodious Nuthatch) Latinized from Greek λίγεια = piercing, melodic, eloquent.

S. m. magna Wardlaw-Ramsay, 1876


Sitta formosa Beautiful Nuthatch Blyth, 1843

Sitta formosa E. Blyth. “Mr. Blyth’s Monthly Report for December Meeting, 1842, with Addenda Subsequently Appended.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 12, pt 2, no. 143, n.s., 59 (1843), 938 – type loc. Darjeeling.

(Beautiful Nuthatch) Latin fōrmōsa = beautiful, from fōrma = beauty, and -ōsa = adjectival suffix (full of).

Certhiidae

CERTHIIDAE Leach, 1820

W.E. Leach. Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum. 17th edn. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820, 68.


Certhia Linnaeus, 1758

Certhia Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 118.


Certhia familiaris Eurasian Treecreeper Linnaeus, 1758

Certhia familiaris Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 118 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

(Friendly Treecreeper) from Latin familiāris = familiar, friendly, from Latin familia = family, household, and Latin -āris = relational adjectival suffix.

C. f. britannica Ridgway, 1882

Certhia familiaris britannica Robert Ridgway. ‘Critical Remarks on the Tree-creepers (Certhia) of Europe and North America.’ Proceedings of the United States National Museum 5 (1882), 113 – type loc. England.

(British Treecreeper) for Great Britain, from Latin Britannia = Great Britain, and Latin -ica = relational adjectival suffix.

C. f. macrodactyla Brehm, 1831

Certhia macrodactyla Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands. Ilmenau: Verlag von Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 208–209.

(Long-toed Treecreeper) Latinized from Greek μᾰκρός, makrós = long, and Greek δᾰ́κτῠλος, dáktulos = finger, toe.

C. f. corsa Hartert, 1905

Certhia familiaris corsa Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1905, Heft 3, 320. Collated and republished as vol. 1 (1910), 320 – type coll. Corsica, John Whitehead, 6 January 1884.

(Corsican Treecreeper) for Corsica.

C. f. familiaris Linnaeus, 1758

C. f. daurica Domaniewski, 1922

Certhia familiaris daurica J. Domaniewski. ‘Krytyczne uwagi o palearktycznych przedstawicielach rodzaju Certhia Linn.’ [Notes critiques sur les représentants paléarctiques du genre Certhia Linn.], Archiwum Nauk Biologicznych Towarzystwa Naukowego Warszawskiego 1, fasc. 10 (1922), 4 – type coll. Darasoun [Darasun], Daourie [Transbaikal], Russia, 1867, B. Dybowski.

(Daurian Treecreeper) for Dauria [Transbaikal, literally the country of the Daur.

C. f. caucasica Buturlin, 1907

Certhia familiaris caucasica S.A. Buturlin. ‘Neue Formen aus dem Kaukasus.’ Ornithologische Monatsberichte 15, no. 1 (1907), 8–9 – type loc. Caucasus and Transcaucasia.

(Caucasus Treecreeper) for Caucasus.

C. f. persica Zarudny and Loudon, 1905

Certhia familiaris persica N. Sarudny [N. Zarudny] and H. Loudon [H. von Loudon]. ‘Vorläufige Bemerkungen über drei ornithologische Neuheiten aus Persien.’ Ornithologische Monatsberichte 13, no. 6–7 (1905), 106–107 – type loc. Caspian provinces of Iran.

(Persian Treecreeper) for Persian [Iran].

C. f. bianchii Hartert, 1905

Certhia familiaris bianchii Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1905, Heft 3, 321. Collated and republished as vol. 1 (1910), 321 – type coll. ‘Tetung Mountains’ [part of Nanshan Mountains = Qilian Mountains?], Kansu [Gansu Province], China, N. Przewalski.

(Bianchi’s Treecreeper) for Valentin Bianchi.

C. f. tianschanica Hartert, 1905

Certhia familiaris tianschanica Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1905, Heft 3, 321. Collated and republished as vol. 1 (1910), 320 – type coll. Ak-Su [Aksu], Tian Shan, Kazakhstan/China, 19 February 1902, A.A. Kutzenko.

(Tian Shan Treecreeper) for Tian Shan mountain ranges.

C. f. japonica Hartert, 1897

Certhia familiaris japonica Ernst Hartert. ‘Notes on Palaearctic Birds and Allied Forms.’ Novitates zoologicae 4, no. 1 (1897), 138 – type coll. northern Hondo [Honshu], Japan, Alan Owston.

(Japanese Treecreeper) for Japan, from Latin Japonia = Japan, and Latin -ica = relational adjectival suffix.


Certhia hodgsoni Hodgson’s Treecreeper Brooks, 1871

Certia Hodgsoni W.E. Brooks. ‘Notes on the Ornithology of Cashmir.’ Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, September 1871, no. 9, 209. Extended and republished in Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 41, pt 2, no. 1 (1872), 74. Republished in ‘Notes upon a Collection of Birds Made between Mussoori and Gangaotri in May 1874.’ Stray Feathers 3, no. 1–3 (1875), 233n – type coll. Cashmir [Kashmir], W.E. Brooks.

(Hodgson’s Treecreeper) for B.H. Hodgson.

C. h. hodgsoni Brooks, 1871

C. h. mandellii Brooks, 1874

Certhia Mandellii W.E. Brooks. ‘Notes on the Certhiinæ of India.’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 42 (= ‘1873’), pt 2, no. 4 (1874), 256–257 – type loc. Sikkim, India.

(Mandelli’s Treecreeper) for L. Mandelli.

C. h. khamensis Bianchi, 1903

Certhia khamensis V. Bianchi in R. Bowdler Sharpe. A Hand-list of the Genera and Species of Birds: Nomenclator avium tum fossilium tum viventium. London: British Museum (Natural History), 1903, 4: 355 (list), 360 (descr.) – type loc. Kan-su [Gansu] and Sze-chuen [Sichuan], China, and Upper Mekong, Tibet.

(Kham Treecreeper) for Kham, Tibet and Sichuan Province, China, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix


Certhia americana Brown Creeper Bonaparte, 1838

Certhia americana Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucian Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. London: J. Van Voorst, 1838, 11 – type loc. western and northern North America.

(American Treecreeper) for North America, from Latin America = America, and Latin -āna = relational adjectival suffix.

C. a. alascensis Webster, 1986

Certhia americana alascensis J. Dan Webster. ‘Certhia americana Bonaparte.’ In Allan R. Philips. The Known Birds of North and Middle America. Pt 1, Hirundinidae to Mimidae; Certhiidae. Denver, CO: A.R. Phillips, 1986, 199 – type coll. Fort Wainwright, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 28 September 1961, W.T. Van Velzen.

(Alaskan Treecreeper) for Alaska, USA.

C. a. occidentalis Ridgway, 1882

Certhia familiaris occidentalis Robert Ridgway. ‘Critical Remarks on the Tree-creepers (Certhia) of Europe and North America.’ Proceedings of the United States National Museum 5 (1882), 115–116 – type loc. Pacific coast of North America.

(Western Treecreeper) from Latin occidentālis = western, from occidēns = west, and -ālis = adjectival suffix.

C. a. stewarti Webster, 1986

Certhia americana stewarti J. Dan Webster. ‘Certhia americana Bonaparte.’ In Alan R. Philips. The Known Birds of North and Middle America. Pt 1, Hirundinidae to Mimidae; Certhiidae. Denver, CO: A.R. Phillips, 1986, 200 – type coll. Masset, British Columbia, Canada, 27 May 1920, J.A. Munro.

(Stewart’s Treecreeper) for Ronald McDonald Stewart.

C. a. zelotes Osgood, 1901

Certhia familiaris zelotes Wilfred H. Osgood. ‘New Subspecies of North American Birds.’ Auk 18, no. 2 (1901), 182–183 – type coll. Battle Creek, Tehama County, California, USA, 23 October 1898, R.C. McGregor.

(Imitator Treecreeper) Latinized from Greek ζηλωτής, zēlōtḗs = emulator.

C. a. phillipsi Unitt and Rea, 1997

Certhia americana phillipsi Philip Unitt and Amadeo M. Rea. ‘Taxonomy of the Brown Creeper in California.’ In R.W. Dickerman. The Era of Allan Phillips: A Festschrift. Albuquerque, NM: Horizon Communications, 1997, 180–182 – type coll. Pointa Gorda [Gorda], California, USA, 14 October 1989, Philip Unitt.

(Phillips’s Treecreeper) for Allan R. Philips.

C. a. montana Ridgway, 1882

Certhia familiaris montana Robert Ridgway. ‘Critical Remarks on the Tree-creepers (Certhia) of Europe and North America.’ Proceedings of the United States National Museum 5 (1882), 114–115 – type loc. Middle province of North America.

(Mountain Treecreeper) from Latin montāna, from mōns = mountain, and -ānus = relational adjectival suffix.

C. a. leucosticta van Rossem, 1931

Certhia familiaris leucosticta A.J. van Rossem. ‘Descriptions of New Birds from the Mountains of Southern Nevada.’ Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 6, no. 22 (1831), 329 – type coll. Hidden Forest, Clark County, Nevada, USA, 17 September 1930, A.J. van Rossem.

(White-spotted Treecreeper) from Greek λευκοστικτος, leukostiktos = white-speckled, white-spotted, from λευκος, leukos = white, and στικτος, stiktos = spotted.

C. a. americana Bonaparte, 1838

C. a. nigrescens Burleigh, 1935

Certhia familiaris nigrescens Thomas D. Burleigh. ‘Two News Birds from the Southern Appalachians.’ Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 48, no. 15 (1935), 62 – type coll. Mount Mitchell, North Carolina, USA, 8 May 1930, Thomas D. Burleigh.

(Blackish Treecreeper) from Latin nigrēscēns = blackish.

C. a. albescens Berlepsch, 1888

Certhia mexicana albescens Hans von Berlepsch. Descriptions of New Species and Subspecies of Birds from the Neotropical Region.’ Auk 5, no. 4 (1888), 450 – Cuidad [La Cuidad], Durango [Victoria de Durango], Mexico, 16 October 18??, Alph. Forrer.

(Whitish Treecreeper) from Latin albēscēns = whitish.

C. a. alticola Miller, 1895

Certhia familiaris alticola Gerrit S. Miller ‘The Systematic Name of the Mexican Creeper.’ Auk 12, no. 2 (1895), 184–185.

(Lofty Treecreeper) from Latin altus = high and incola = inhabitant.

C. a. pernigra Griscom, 1935

Certhia familiaris pernigra Ludlow Griscom. ‘Critical Notes on Central American Birds in the British Museum.’ Ibis 77, no. 3 (1935), 552 – Volcán de Fuego, Guatemala, November 1873, Osbert Salvin.

(Inky Treecreeper) from Latin prefix per- = very, and Latin nigrā = black.

C. a. extima Miller and Griscom, 1925

Certhia familiaris extima W. DeW. Miller and Ludlow Griscom. ‘Notes on Central American Birds, with Descriptions of New Forms.’ American Museum Novitates, no. 183 (1925), 6–7 – San Rafael del Norte, Nicaragua, 23 March 1917, W. DeW. Miller and Ludlow Griscom.

(Remotest Treecreeper) from Latin extimā = outermost, furthest.


Certhia brachydactyla Short-toed Treecreeper Brehm, 1820

Certhia brachydactyla Christian Ludwig Brehm. Beiträge zur Vögelkunde in vollständigen Beschreibungen mehrerer neu Entdeckter und vieler seltener oder nicht gehörig beobachteter deutscher Vögel. Neustadt an der Orla: J.K.G. Wagner, 1820, 570–587 – type coll. Renthendorf, Germany, 29 December 1816, Christian Ludwig Brehm.

(Short-toed Treecreeper) Latinized from Greek βρᾰχῠδᾰ́κτῠλος, brakhudáktulos = short-toed, from βρᾰχῠ́ς, brakhús = short, and‎ δᾰ́κτῠλος, dáktulos = finger, toe.

C. b. megarhynchos Brehm, 1831

Certhia megarhynchos Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands. Ilmenau: Verlag von Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 211.

(Large-billed Treecreeper) from Greek μέγᾰς, mégas = large, and Greek ῥῠ́γχος, rhúnkhos = bill.

C. b. brachydactyla Brehm, 1820

C. b. mauritanica Witherby, 1905

Certhia brachydactyla mauritanica H.F. Witherby. ‘On a New Subspecies of Treecreeper from Algeria.’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 15, no. 112 (1905), 35–36 – Aïn-Draham [Aïn Draham], Tunesia, 13 April 1903, H.F. Witherby.

(Mauritanian Treecreeper) for Mauritania.

C. b. dorotheae Hartert, 1904

Certhia brachydactyla dorotheæ Ernst Hartert. ‘A New Species of Certhia.’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 14 , no. 104 (1904), 50–51 – type coll. Troödos [Troodos], Cyprus, 4 January 1904.

(Bate’s Treecreeper) for Dorothea Bate.

C. b. rossocaucasica Stepanyan, 2000

L. S. Stepanyan ‘Новый подвид короткопалой пищухи Certhia brachydactyla (Aves, Certhiidae) из области Северо-Западного Кавказа.’ [A new subspecies of the Short-toed Treecreeper Certhia brachydactyla (Aves, Certhiidae) from the region of the Northwest Caucasus.] Зоологическом журнале [Zoological journal] 79, no. 3 (2000), 333-337.

(Russo-Caucasian Treecreeper) from Latin Rosso- = Russian, and Latin Caucasica = of the Caucasus Mountains.


Certhia himalayana Bar-tailed Treecreeper Vigors, 1832

Certhia Himalayana N.A. Vigors ‘Observations on a Collection of Birds from Hymalayan Mountains, with Characters of New Genera and Species.’ Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt 1, no. 14 (1832), 174 – type coll. Himalayas, Dr. Struthers.

(Himalayan Treecreeper) for the Himalays.

C. h. taeniura Severtsov, 1873

Certhia taeniura N.A. Severtsov. ‘Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных’ [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna]. Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography] 8, no. 2 (1873), 66 (table), 138 (text). Republished in ‘Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.’ Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887), 190–110 – type coll. Tschimkent [Shymkent], Kazakhstan (then Russia), November 1864?, N.A. Severtsov.

(Bar-tailed Treecreeper) Latinized fram Greek ταινία, tainía = band, and Greek -οὐρος, -ouros = -tailed, from οὐρά, ourá = tail.

C. h. himalayana Vigors, 1832

C. h. yunnanensis Sharpe, 1902

Certhia yunnanensis R. Bowdler Sharpe. ‘On New Birds from Yun-nan.’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 13, no. 91 (1902), 11 – type coll. Shanyang, Ch’ü-tung road’, Yun-nan [Yunnan Province], China, 15 March 1902?, G. Rippon.

(Yunnan Treecreeper) for Yunnan, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

C. h. ripponi Kinnear, 1929

Certhia familiaris ripponi N.B. Kinnear. ‘Ammended name: Certhia familiaris ripponi for C. f. intermedia.’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 49, no. 334 (1929), 109 – type coll. Mount Victoria [Nat Ma Taung], Chin State, Myanmar, G. Rippon.

(Rippon’s Treecreeper) for G. Rippon.


Certhia nipalensis Rusty-flanked Treecreeper Blyth, 1845

Certhia nipalensis Edward Blyth. ‘Notices and Descriptions of Various New or Little Known Species of Birds.’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 14, pt 2, no. 164 (1845), 580–581 – type coll. Nepal, B.H. Hodgson.

(Nepalese Treecreeper) from Nipal = Nepal, and Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.


Certhia discolor Sikkim Treecreeper Blyth, 1845

Certhia discolor Edward Blyth. ‘Notices and Descriptions of Various New or Little Known Species of Birds.’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 14, pt 2, no. 164 (1845), 580–581 – type coll. Darjeeling, Mr. G. Webb.

(Peculiar Treecreeper) from Latin discolor = having a different colour.


Certhia manipurensis Hume’s Treecreeper Hume, 1881

Certhia manipurensis Allan Hume. ‘Novelties?’ Stray Feathers 10, no. 1 (1881), 151–152 – type coll. eastern hills of Manipur, India, Allan Hume.

(Manipur Treecreeper) for Manipur, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

C. m. manipurensis Hume, 1881

C. m. shanensis Baker, 1930

Certhis discolor shanensis E.C. Stuart Baker The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. 2nd edn. Vol. 7, Birds. London: Taylor and Francis, 1930, 90 – type coll. Loi-pang Nan [Loipang Nan], Myanmar, April 1902.

(Shan Treecreeper) for Shan State, Myanmar, and Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

C. m. laotiana Delacour, 1951

Certhia discolor laotiana J. Delacour. ‘Commentaires, modifications et additions à la liste des oiseaux de l’Indochine Française. II.’ L’Oiseau et la Revue Française d’Ornithologie, n.s., 21, trim. 2 (1951), 112 – type coll. Phu-Kobo, Xieng-Khouang [Xiankhouang Province], Laos, 15 December 1938, J. Delacour, F. Edmond-Blanc and J.C. Greenway.

(Laos Treecreeper) for Laos, and Latin -iana = relational adjectival suffix.

C. m. meridionalis Robinson and Kloss, 1919

Certhia discolor meridionalis Herbert C. Robinson and C. Boden Kloss. On Birds from South Annam and Cochin China. Part II: Pycnonotidæ.’ Ibis, 11th ser., vol. 1, no. 4 (1919), 609–610 – type coll. Langbian Peaks [Đà Lạt Plateau], Annam [Vietnam], 8 April 1918, C.B. Kloss.

(Southern Treecreeper) from Latin merīdiōnālis = southern, from merīdiēs = south, and -ālis = relational adjectival suffix.


Salpornis Gray, 1847

Salpornis G.R. Gray. ‘On Two New Genera of Certinæ.’ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 15, no. 168 (1847), 7.


Salpornis spilonota Indian Spotted Creeper (Franklin, 1831)

Certhia spilonota James Franklin. ‘Catalogue of Birds, collected on the Ganges between Calcutta and Benares, and in the Vindhyian Hills between the latter place and Gurrah Mundela on the Nerbudda, with Characters of the New Species.’ Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt 1, no. 10 (1831), 121 – type coll. Ganges/Vindhyian hills [Vindhya Range], India, James Franklin.

(Spot-backed Treecreeper) from Greek σπιλος, spilos = spot, and Greek -νωτος, -nōtos = -backed, from νῶτον, nōton = back.

S. s. rajputanae Meinertzhagen and Meinertzhagen, 1926

Salpornis spilonota rajputanæ R. Meinertzhagen and A. Meinertzhagen. ‘Descriptions of New Birds from India: .’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 46, no. 304 (1926), 83 – type coll. Sambhur [Sambhar Lake Town], India, 2 June 1873, A. Hume?.

(Rajputana Treecreeper) for Rajputana (= ± Rajasthan), India.

S. s. spilonota (Franklin, 1831)


Salpornis salvadori African Spotted Creeper (Barboza du Bocage, 1878)

Hylypsornis Salvadori J.V. Barboza du Bocage [J.V. Barbosa du Bocage]. ‘Mélanges ornithologiques. VI Espèces nouvelles d’Angola.’ Jornal de sciências mathemáticas, físicas e naturaes, no. 23 (1886), 211–212 – type coll. Caconda, Angola, 1877, Mr. d’Anchieta [J.A. de Oliveira Anchieta].

(Salvadori’s Treecreeper) for T. Salvadori.

S. s. emini Hartlaub, 1884

Salpornis emini G. Hartlaub. ‘On a New Species of Salpornis from Eastern Equatorial Africa.’ Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1884, no. 28 (1884) 415–417, pl. 37 – type coll. Langomeri, Eastern Equatorial Africa [Eastern Equatoria, South Sudan], Emin Bey [Isaak Schnitzer/Emin Pasha].

(Emin Bey’s Treecreeper) for Emin Bey [Isaak Schnitzer/Emin Pasha].

S. s. erlangeri Neumann, 1907

Salpornis spilonota erlangeri Oscar Neumann. ‘Ein neuer Salpornis.’ Ornithologische Monatsberichte 15, no. 3 (1907), 52 – Type coll. Anderatscha [Anderaccha], Kaffa [Keffa Zone], Ethiopia, 16 March 1901, O. Neumann.

(Erlanger’s Treecreeper) for Carlo von Erlanger.

S. s. salvadori (Barboza du Bocage, 1878)

S. s. xylodromus Clancey, 1975

Salpornis spilonotus xylodromus P.A. Clancey. Miscellaneous Taxonomic Notes on African Birds XLI.’ Durban Museum Novitates 10, no. 14 (1975), 208 – Mafungabusi Plateau, Gokwe district [Gokwe South District], Rhodesia [Zimbabwe], 18 July 1964, Durban Museum personnel.

(Tree-runner) Latinized from Greek ξύλον, xúlon = wood, and Greek δρόμος, drómos = race, running.

Tichodromidae

TICHODROMIDAE Swainson, 1827

William Swainson. ‘On Several Groups and Forms in Ornithology, Not Hitherto Defined.’ Zoological Journal 3, no. 11 (1827), 355.


Tichodroma Illiger, 1811

Tichodroma Caroli Illigeri [Karl Illiger]. Prodromus Systematis Mammalium et Avium . Berolini [Berlin]: C. Salfeld, 1811, 210–211.


Tichodroma muraria Wallcreeper (Linnaeus, 1766)

Certhia muraria Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm: Impensis Direct. Laurenth Salvii, 1766, 1: 184–185 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

From Latin murarius = of the walls, from murus = wall.

T. m. muraria (Linnaeus, 1766)

T. m. nepalensis Bonaparte, 1850

Tichodroma nepalensis Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E.J. Brill, 1850, 1: 225 – type loc. central Asia.

(Nepal Wallcreeper) for Nepal, from Latin nepal = Nepal, and Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

Cinclidae

CINCLIDAE Sundevall, 1836

C.J. Sundevall. ‘Ornithologiskt System.’ Kungliga Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar, 3rd ser., t. 23 (1836), 91.


Cinclus Borkhausen, 1797

Cinclus Moriz Balthasar Borkhausen [Moritz Balthasar Borkhausen]. Deutsche Fauna, oder, Kurzgefasste Naturgeschichte der Thiere Deutschlands. Pt 1 Saugthiere und Vögel. Frankfurt am Main: Barrentrapp und Wenner, 1797, 300.


Cinclus cinclus White-throated Dipper (Linnaeus, 1758)

Sturnus Cinclus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 168 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

From Greek κίγκλος, kínklos = White Wagtail, cf. Aristotle. Historia animalium. Translated by D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson. Vol. 4 of The Works of Aristotle. Edited by J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910, 593b4–7.

C. c. hibernicus Hartert, 1910

Cinclus cinclus hibernicus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1910, Heft 6, 790. Collated and republished as vol. 1 (1910), 790 – type coll. County Cork, Ireland, 25 August 1896.

(Irish Dipper) from Latin hibernicus = Irish.

C. c. gularis (Latham, 1802)

Turdus gularis Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus, sive systema ornithologiae. Londini [London]: Prostat apud G. Leigh, J. et S. Sotheby, 1802, 40 – type coll. ‘Miss Calvin’, Penrith, England, UK.

(White-throated Dipper) from Latin gulāris = throat.

C. c. cinclus (Linnaeus, 1758)

C. c. aquaticus (Bechstein, 1797)

Accentor aquaticus I.M. Bechstein. Getreue Abbildungen naturhistorischer Gegenstaende in Hinsicht auf Bechsteins kurzgefasste gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte des In- und Auslandes: für Eltern, Hofmeister, Jugendlehrer, Erzieher und Liebhaber der Naturgeschichte. Nürnberg: Schneider und Weigel Kunst- und Buchhandlung, 1797. Vol. 1, Heft 3, 47, pl. 30.

(Aquatic Dipper) from Latin aquāticus = aquatic, relating to water, from Latin aqua = water, and Latin -ticus = adjectival suffix.

C. c. olympicus† Madarasz, 1903

Cinclus olympicus Julius von Madarász [Gyula Madarász]. ‘Zwei neue cyprische Vögel.’ Ornithologische Monatsberichte 11, no. 1 (1903), 6 – type coll. C. Glaszner, Troodos Mountains, Cyprus, 3 October 1902.

(Olympus Dipper) for Mount Olympus, Cyprus.

C. c. minor Tristram, 1870

Cinclus minor H.B. Tristram. ‘Notes on Some Old World Species of Passerine Birds.’ Ibis, n.s., vol. 6, no. 24 (1870), 496–497 – type coll. J.H. Gurney Jr., Blida, Algeria.

(Lesser Dipper) from Latin minor = lesser, comparative of parvus.

C. c. rufiventris Tristram, 1885

Cinclus rufiventris H.B. Tristram. The Survey of Western Palestine: The Flora and Fauna of Palestine. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1884, 51 – type loc. Litany River [Litani River], Libanon.

(Red-bellied Dipper) from Latin rufiventris = red bellied, from Latin rūfus = red, and Latin‎ venter = belly.

C. c. uralensis Serebrovski, 1927

Cinclus cinclus uralensis P. Serebrovski. ‘New Races of Palearctic Birds.’ Doklady Akademii Nauk S.S.S.R., no. 20 (1927), 326 – type coll. P. Sushkin, ‘River Pismianka, Belebei District [Belebeyevsky District], Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, 24 May 1891.

(Ural Dipper) for Ural, Russia.

C. c. caucasicus Madarasz, 1903

Cinclus caucasicus Julius von Madarász [Gyula Madarász]. ‘Drei neue palaearktische Vogelarten.’ Annales historico-naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 1, no. 2 (1903), 560 – type coll. Piatigorsk [Pyatigorsk], North Caucasian Federal District, Russia, 3 February 1899, and Wladikawkas [Vladikavkaz], Republic of North Ossetia – Alania, Russia, 14 February 1900.

(Caucasus Dipper) from Latin caucasicus = Caucasian.

C. c. persicus Witherby, 1906

Cinclus cinclus persicus H.F. Witherby. ‘On a New Subspecies of Dipper from S.W. Persia.’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 16, no. 123 (1906), 71–72 – type coll. R.B. Woosnam, Mal Amir [Izeh], Iran, 16 April 1905.

(Persian Dipper) for Persia [Iran].

C. c. leucogaster Bonaparte, 1850

Cinclus leucogasterCarolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E.J. Brill, 1850, 1: 252 – type loc. Siberia, Russia.

(White-bellied Dipper) Latinized leucogaster from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and Greek γαστήρ = gastḗr = belly.

C. c. baicalensis Dresser, 1892

Cinclus leucogaster baicalensis H.E. Dresser. ‘Remarks on the Palæarctic White-breasted Dippers.’ Ibis, 6th ser., vol. 4, no. 15 (1892) 385–387 – type loc. Lake Baikal, Russia.

(Baikal Dipper) for Lake Baikal, Russia, from Latin baical = Baikal and -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

C. c. cashmeriensis Gould, 1860

Cinclus cashmeriensis John Gould. ‘On Two New Species of Cinclus.’ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 27 (= ‘1859’), pt 3, no. 413 (1860), 494 – type coll. A. Leith Adams, Cashmere [Kashmir].

(Kashmir Dipper) from Latinized cashmere = Kashmir, from Hindi कश्मीर, kaśmīr, and Latin -iēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix.

C. c. przewalskii Bianchi, 1905

Cinclus przewalskii V. Bianchi. ‘On a New Species of Dipper.’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 15, no. 117 (1905), 91–92 – type coll. P. Koslow [P. Kozlov], ‘Den-chu’, Yang-tse-kiang [Yangtze] basin, China, 17–18 April [30 April–1 May] 1901.

(Przewalski’s Dipper) for Nikolay Przewalski.


Cinclus pallasii Brown Dipper Temminck, 1820

Cinclus Pallasii C.J. Temminck. Manuel d’ornithologie, ou Tableau systématique des oiseaux qui se trouvent en Europe: précédé d’une analyse du système général d’ornithologie, et suivi d’une table alphabétique des espèces. Paris: H. Cousin, 1820, 1: 177 – type coll. P.S. Pallas, Crimea, Ukrain/Russia.

(Pallas’s Dipper) for Peter Simon Pallas.

C. p. tenuirostris Bonaparte, 1850

Cinclus tenuirostris Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E.J. Brill, 1850, 1: 252 – type loc. central Asia.

(Slender-billed Dipper) from Latin tenuirōstris = slender billed, from Latin tenuis = thin, slender, and Latin rōstrum = bill, beak.

C. p. dorjei Kinnear, 1937

Cinclus pallasii dorjei N.B. Kinnear in F. Ludlow. ‘The Birds of Bhutan and Adjacent Territories of Sikkim and Tibet: Part II.’ With Notes by N.B. Kinnear. Ibis 79, no. 2 (1937), 263 – type coll. F. Ludlow and G. Sherriff, Sakden [Sakteng Gewog], East Bhutan, 18 October 1934.

(Dorje’s Dipper) for Raja S.T. Dorje [S.T. Dorji].

C. p. pallasii Temminck, 1820


Cinclus mexicanus American Dipper Swainson, 1827

Cinclus Mexicanus William Swainson. ‘A Synopsis of the Birds Discovered in Mexico by W. Bullock and Mr. WIlliam Bullock, jun.’ Philosophical Magazine or Annals of Chemistry, Mathematics, Astronomy, Natural History and General Science 1, no. 4 (1827), 368 – type coll. W. Bullock and/or William Bullock Jr., Mexico.

(Mexican Dipper) for Mexico.

C. m. unicolor Bonaparte, 1827

Cinclus unicolor Charles Lucian Buonaparte ‘Supplement to the Genera of North American Birds, and to the Synopsis of the Species Found within the Territory of the United States.’ Zoological Journal 3, no. 9 (1827), 52–53 – type loc. Athapescow Lake [Lake Athabasca], Canada.

(Unicoloured Dipper) from Latin ūnicolor = of one colour.

C. m. mexicanus Swainson, 1827

C. m. anthonyi Griscom, 1930

Cinclus mexicanus anthonyi Ludlow Griscom. ‘Studies from the Dwight Collection of Guatemala Birds III’ American Museum Novitates, no. 438 (1930), 7 – type coll. A.W. Anthony, San Mateo [San Mateo Ixtatán], Guatemala, 12 February 1927.

(Anthony’s Dipper) for A.W. Anthony.

C. m. dickermani Phillips, 1966

Cinclus mexicanus dickermani Allan R. Phillips. ‘Further Systematic Notes on Mexican Birds’. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 86, no. 7 (1966), 126 – type coll. Ciro González, Rio Molino, Oaxaca, Mexico, 29–30 November 1961.

(Dickerman’s Dipper) for Robert W. Dickerman.

C. m. ardesiacus Salvin, 1867

Cinclus ardesiacus Osbert Salvin. ‘On the Genus Cinclus.’ Ibis, n.s., vol. 3, no. 9 (1867), 121 – type coll. Enrique Arce, Cordillera de Tolé [Tolé District], Panama.

(Slate-coloured Dipper) from Latin ardēsiācus = slate-coloured, from French ardoise = slate.


Cinclus leucocephalus White-capped Dipper Tschudi, 1844

Cinclus leucocephalus J.J. de Tschudi [J.J. von Tschudi]. ‘Avium conspectus quae in Republica Peruana reperiuntur et pleraeque observatae vel collectae sunt in itinere.’ Archiv für Naturgeschichte 10, Bd. 1 (1844), 279 – type loc. Peru.

(White-headed Dipper) from Latin leucocephalus = white headed, Latinized from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and Greek κέφᾰλος, képhalos = headed.

C. l. rivularis Bangs, 1899

Cinclus rivularis Outram Bangs. ‘On Some New or Rare Birds from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia.’ Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 13, no. 22 (1899), 105–106 – type coll. ‘Chirua’, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, W.W. Brown Jr., 7 February 1899.

(Rivulet Dipper) from Latin rīvulāris = inhabitant of small brook, rivulet.

C. l. leuconotus Sclater, 1858

Cinclus leuconotus Philip Lutley Sclater. ‘Description of Eleven New Species of Birds from Tropical America.’ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 25 (= ‘1857’), no. 342 (1858), 274 – type loc. Nova Grenada [Bogotá], Colombia.

(White-backed Dipper) from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and Greek -νωτος, -nōtos = -backed, from νῶτον, nôton = back.

C. l. leucocephalus Tschudi, 1844


Cinclus schulzii Rufous-throated Dipper Cabanis, 1882

Cinclus Schulzii J. Cabanis. ‘Ueber neue Vogelarten.’ Ornithologisches Centralblatt 7, no. 23–24 (1882), 182–183. Also published in ‘Ueber Cinclus Schulzi [sic] n. sp., Phloeotomus Schulzi n. sp., Chloronerpes tucumanus n. sp.’. Journal für Ornithologie 31, Folge 4, Bd. 11, Heft 1, no. 161 (1883), 102 – type coll. Fritz Schulz, Tucumán Province, Argentina.

(Schulz’s Dipper) for Fritz Schulz.

Prunellidae

PRUNELLIDAE Richmond, 1908

Charles W. Richmond. ‘Generic Names Applied to Birds during the Years 1901 to 1905, Inclusive, with Further Additions to Waterhouse’s “Index generum avium”.’ Proceedings of the United States National Museum 35, no. 1656 (1908), 585.


Prunella Vieillot, 1816

Prunella L.P. Vieillot. Analyse d’une nouvelle ornithologie élémentaire. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 43.

Accentor Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Ornithologisches Taschenbuch von und für Deutschland, oder Kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel Deutschlands für Liebhaber dieses Theils der Naturgeschichte. Abt. 1 Landvögel. Leipzig: Carl Friedrich Enoch Richter, 1802, 191–192.

Laiscopus C.W.L. Gloger. Gemeinnütziges Hand- und Hilfsbuch der Naturgeschichte. Für Leser aller gebildete Stände, besonders für die reifere Jugend und ihre Lehrer. Breslau [Wrocław]: Verlag von Aug. Schulz & Comp., 1841, Heft 4, 267. Collated and republished in 1842, 1: 267.

Tharrhaleus Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt and Leipzig: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1: 137.

Sturnus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 167.

Motacilla Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 184.


Prunella collaris Alpine Accentor (Scopoli, 1769)

Sturnus collaris Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 131–132 – type loc. Carniola [(part of) Slovenia].

(Collared Accentor) – from Latin collāris = collared, from Latin collum = neck, throat and Latin -āris = relational adjectival suffix

P. c. collaris (Scopoli, 1769)

P. c. subalpina (Brehm, 1831)

Accentor subalpinus Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands. Ilmenau: Verlag von Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 1009 – type coll. Dalmatia, Croatia, 30 April 1828.

(Subalpine Accentor) – from Latin prefix sub- = beneath, below, and Latin genitival adjective alpīna, for the Alps

P. c. montana (Hablitz, 1783)

Sturnus montanus Carl Hablitz. ‘Bemerkungen in der persischen Landschaft Gilan und auf den Gilanischen Gebirgen in den Jahren 1773 und 1774.’ Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie, Bd. 4 (1783), 52 (name), 53–54 (descr.) – type coll. ‘hunters’, ‘Samamische Gebirge’, Gilan Province, Iran, 15 July 1774.

(Mountain Accentor) – from Latin mōns = mountain, and Latin -ānus = genitival adjectival suffix

P. c. rufilata (Severtzov, 1879)

Accentor rufilatus N.A. Severtsov. ‘Новые виды туркестанских птиц’ [New Species of Turkestan Birds], Записки Туркестанского отдела Императорского общества любителей естествознания, астрономии и этнографии [Notes from the Turkestan Branch of the Society of Devotees of Natural Science, Anthropology, and Ethnography] 1, no. 1 (1879), 45–57 – type loc. Turkestan.

(Red-flanked Accentor) – from Latin rūfus = red, and Latin latus = side, flank

P. c. whymperi (Baker, 1915)

Laiscopus collaris whymperi E.C. Stuart Baker. ‘Exhibition and Description of a New Subspecies – Laiscopus collaris whymperi – from Garwhal [sic]’. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 35, no. 104 (1915), 61 – type coll. Samuel Leigh Whymper, Garhwal, British India [part of present-day Uttarakhand, India], 10 July 1910.

(Whymper’s Accentor) – for Samuel Leigh Whymper

P. c. nipalensis (Blyth, 1843)

Accentor Nipalensis E. Blyth. ‘Mr. Blyth’s Monthly Report for December Meeting, 1842, with Addenda Subsequently Appended.’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 12, pt 2, no. 143, n.s., no. 59 (1843), 958–959 – type coll. B.H. Hodgson, ‘Kâchar region’, Nepal.

(Nepali Accentor) – for Nepal (syn. Nipal), and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix

P. c. tibetana (Bianchi, 1905)

Accentor collaris tibetanus V. Bianchi. ‘Обзоръ формъ семейства завирушекъ, Accentoridae, ord. Passeriformes’ [Review of the forms within the family of Accentors, Accentoridae, ord. Passeriformes]/’Révision des genres et des espèces de la famille Accentoridae, ord. Passeriformes.’ Annuaire du Musée zoologique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg/Ежегодникъ зоологическаго музея Императорской академіи наукъ 9 (1905), 125 (narr.), 128 (descr.) – type loc. East Tibet.

(Tibetan Accentor) – for Tibet, with Latin -ana = feminine, genitival, relational adjectival suffix

P. c. erythropygia (Swinhoe, 1870)

Accentor erythropygius R. Swinhoe. ‘On a New Species of Accentor from North China.’ Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1870, no. 8 (1870), 124–125, pl. 9 – type coll. Swinhoe, ‘Kemeih’, most likely present-day Hebei Province, China, 26 September 1868.

(Red-rumped Accentor) – Latinized from Greek ἐρυθρός, eruthrós = red, and Greek -πυγιος, -pugios = -rumped, from πῡγή, pūgḗ = rump

P. c. fennelli Deignan, 1964

Prunella collaris fennelli H.G. Deignan. ‘A New Race of the ALpine Accentor, Prunella collaris, from Formosa.’ Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 84, no. 3 (1964), 40 – type coll. Chester M. Fennell, Nantou County, Formosa [Taiwan], 16 April 1959.

(Fennell’s Accentor) – for Chester M. Fennell


Prunella himalayana Altai Accentor (Blyth, 1842)

Accentor Himalayanus Edward Blyth. ‘Notes on Various Indian and Malayan Birds, with Descriptions of Some Presumed New Species.’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 11, pt 1, no. 122, n.s. no. 28 (1842), 187–188 – type coll. (possibly) J.T. Pearson, Himalayas (possibly Darjeeling).

(Himalayan Accentor) – from Latin himalayāna = Himalayan


Prunella rubeculoides Robin Accentor (Moore, 1855)

Accentor rubeculoides Frederic Moore. ‘Notice of All the Known Species of the Genus Accentor, with the Description of an Uncharacterized Species from Nepal.’ Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22, no. 267 (1855), 118–119. Republished in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 2nd ser., vol. 16, no. 94 (1855), 287–288 – type coll. B.H. Hodgson, Nepal.

(Robin-like Accentor) – from Latin rubecula = redbreast, robin, from dimunitive of Latin ruber = red, ruddy, and Latinized Greek εἶδος, eîdos = resembling

P. r. muraria Meinertzhagen and Meinertzhagen, 1926

Prunella rubeculoides muraria R. Meinertzhagen and A. Meinertzhagen. ‘Exhibition and description of new birds from the Himalayas and Kashmir: Acanthis flavirostris ladacensis, A. f. baltistanicus, Parus monticolus lepcharum, Regulus regulus sikkimensis, Turdus merula buddæ, Prunella rubeculoides muraria, Tetraogallus tibetanus aquilonifer, and Alauda arvensis lhamarum‘. Bulletin of British Ornithologists’ Club 46, no. 305 (1926), 99 – type coll. John Biddulph, Astor [Astore District], Pakistan, 21 November 1876.

(Wall Accentor) – from Latin mūrus = wall, and Latin -ārius = relational adjectival suffix

P. r. rubeculoides (Moore, 1855)


Prunella strophiata Rufous-breasted Accentor (Blyth, 1843)

Accentor strophiatus E. Blyth. ‘Mr. Blyth’s Monthly Report for December Meeting, 1842, with Addenda Subsequently Appended.’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 12, pt 2, no. 143, n.s., no. 59 (1843), 959–960 – type coll. B.H. Hodgson, Nepal.

(Pectoral Accentor) – from Latin strophium = breast band, and Latin -ata = adjectival suffix

P. s. jerdoni (Brooks, 1872)

Accentor Jerdoni W.E. Brooks. ‘On Two Undescribed Cashmir Birds.’ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 41, pt 2, no. 4 (1872), 327–328, Republished in ‘Recently Described Species: Republications. Accentor Jerdoni Brooks.’ Stray Feathers 4, nos. 4–6 (1876), 491–492 – type loc. Dhurmsala [Dharamshala] and Cashmir [Kashmir], India.

(Jerdon’s Accentor) – for

P. s. strophiata (Blyth, 1843)


Prunella montanella Siberian Accentor (Pallas, 1776)

Motacilla montanella P.S. Pallas. ‘Anhang zum dritten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.’ Reise aus Sibirien zurück an die Wolga. Vol. 3, pt 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1776, 695 – type loc. Dauria, Transbaikal, Russia.

(Mountain-dwelling Accentor) – from Latin montānus = dwelling in the mountains, mountaineer, and Latin -ella (syn. of -ula) = diminutive adjectival suffix

P. m. montanella (Pallas, 1776)

P. m. badia Portenko, 1929

Prunella montanella badia L. Portenko. ‘Die geographischen Formen der schwarzkehligen und sibirischen Braunelle, Prunella atrogularis und P. montanella (Aves).’ Доклады Академии наук СССР, Серия А/Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de l’URSS, Serie A, no. 9 (1929), 220 – type coll. Chukotka Autonomous Okrug [Tschuktschenland] during the 1868–1870 expedition led by Gerhard von Maydell to North-east Siberia.

(Chestnut-coloured Accentor) – from Latin badia = reddish brown, chestnut coloured


Prunella fulvescens Brown Accentor (Severtsov, 1873)

Accentor fulvescens N.A. Severtsov. ‘Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных’ [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna]. Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography] 8, no. 2 (1873), 66 (table), 132–133 (text). Republished in ‘Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.’ Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887), 92–94. In summary republished in ‘Notices on Some Turkestan Birds.’ Stray Feathers 3, no. 5 (1875), 428. In summary republished in H.E. Dresser ‘Notes on Severtzoff’s “Fauna of Turkestan” (Turkestanskie Jevotnie)’. Translated by H.E. Dresser and Carl Craemers. Ibis, 3rd ser., vol. 4, no. 21 (1876), 91 – type loc. Turkestan.

(Tawny Accentor) – from Latin fulvēscēns = yellowing, yellowish, tawny

P. f. fulvescens (Severtsov, 1873)

P. f. dahurica (Taczanowski, 1874)

Accentor dahuricus L. Taczanowski [W. Taczanowski]. ‘Zweiter Nachtrag zum Bericht über die ornithologischen Untersuchungen des Dr. Dybowski in Ost-Siberien.’ Journal für Ornithologie 22, no. 127, 4th ser., Bd. 2, Heft 1 (1874), 320–321 – type coll. B. Dybowski, Stary Tsuruchaitui [Starotsurukhaitui], 13–14 April 1873.

(Daurian Accentor) – for Transbaikal (also Dauria/Dahuria), literally the country of the Daur

P. f. dresseri Hartert, 1910

Prunella fulvescens dresseri Ernst Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel (Berlin: Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1910), vol. 1, Heft 6, p. 770 – type loc. Karakasch Valley [valley of the Karakash River], East Turkestan [Xinjiang Province, China].

(Dresser’s Accentor) for H.E. Dresser

P. f. nanshanica Sushkin, 1925

Prunella fulvescens nanshanica Peter P. Sushkin [Petr P. Sushkin] in ‘Notes on Systematics and Distribution of Certain Palaearctic Birds’, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 38, no. 1 (1925), 51 – type coll. Pyotr Kozlov, Kwei-Tê-ting or Gui-dui [Shangqui], 17 October 1908.

(Nanshan Accentor) – for Nan-shan Mountains [Qilian Mountains]

P. f. khamensis Sushkin, 1925

Prunella fulvescens khamensis Peter P. Sushkin [Petr P. Sushkin]. ‘Notes on Systematics and Distribution of Certain Palaearctic Birds’, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 38, no. 1 (1925), 54–55 – type coll. Pyotr Kozlov along the Re-chü River [Rechu River] (a tributary of the Mekong), Kham, November 1900.

(Kham Accentor) for Kham, Tibet and Sichuan Province, China, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix


Prunella ocularis Radde’s Accentor (Radde, 1884)

Accentor ocularis Gustav Radde. Ornis caucasica. Die Vogelwelt des Kaukasus systematisch und biologisch-geographisch beschrieben. Kassel: Verlag von Theodar Fischer, 1884, 33 (table), 244–245 (descr.), pl. 14 (ill.) – type coll. Radde, Talysh Mountains, southeastern Azerbaijan/northwestern Iran, June 1880 (?).

(Masked Accentor) from Latin oculāris = of or pertaining to the eyes, from Latin oculus = eye, and Latin -āris = relational adjectival suffix


Prunella fagani Arabian Accentor (Ogilvie-Grant, 1913)

Accentor fagani W.R. Ogylvie-Grant. ‘Description and Remarks on New Species of Birds Collected by G.W. Bury in Yemen: Turdus menachensis, Parisoma buryi, Œnanthe yemenensis, Accentor fagani, Poliospiza menachensis, Cryptolopha umbrovirens yemenensis, and on a New Genus and Species, Pseudacanthis yemenensis‘. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 31, no. 188 (1913), 88 – type coll. G.W. Bury, Menacha [Manakhah], 1 February 1913.

(Fagan’s Accentor) for C.E. Fagan


Prunella atrogularis Black-throated Accentor (Brandt, 1843)

Accentor atrogularis J.F. von Brandt. ‘Remarques sur trois espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux chanteurs appartenant aux genres Saxicola et Accentor.’ Bulletin de la Classe physico-mathématique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg, no. 33–34, t. 2, no. 9–10 (1843), col. 140 – type loc. Semipalatinsk [Semey], Kazakhstan/Siberia.

(Black-throated Accentor) from Latin atro = black, and Latin gulāris = throat.

P. a. atrogularis (Brandt, 1843)

P. a. huttoni (Moore, 1854)

Accentor Huttoni Frederic Moore. ‘Notice of All the Known Species of of the Genus Accentor, with the Description of an Uncharacterized Species from Nepal’. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22, no. 267 (1855), 119–120 – type col. Thomas Hutton, Simla [Shimla], Afghanistan.

(Hutton’s Accentor) for Thomas Hutton.


Prunella koslowi Kozlov’s Accentor (Przewalski, 1887)

Accentor Koslowi N.M. Przewalski. ‘Новые виды птиц Центральной Азии’ [New species of birds of central Asia], Zapiski Imperatorskoĭ akademīi nauk/Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 55/1 (1887), 83–85. Republished in N.M. Prjevalsky [N.M. Przewalski], ‘On new species of central-Asian birds’ (trans. E. Delmar Morgan), Ibis, 5th ser., vol. 5, no. 20 (1887), https://archive.org/details/ibis55brit/page/404–406. Republished in Carl Detitius ‘Przewalsky’s neue Vogelarten Centralasiens: Vortrag des Ehrenmitgliedes der Akademie N.M. Przewalsky in der Sitzung der Physikalisch-mathematischen Abtheilung in St. Peterburg vom 1.–13. Januar 1887.’ Translation C. Detitius. Journal für Ornithologie 35, no. 179 (1887), 277, though publ. likely 1888) – type coll. N.M. Przewalski, Ala-schan [Helan Mountains], December 1883–January 1884.

(Koslow’s Accentor) for P.K. Kozlov.


Prunella modularis Dunnock (Linnaeus, 1758)

Motacilla modularis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edn. Vol. 1. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758), 184 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

(Modulating Accentor) from Latin modulārī = to modulate, to sing, to vary pitch.

P. m. hebridium Meinertzhagen, 1934

Prunella modularis hebridium R. Meinertzhagen. ‘The Relation between Plumage and Environment, with Special Reference to the Outer Hebrides.’ Ibis 76, no. 1 (1934), 57 – type coll. Meinertzhagen, South Uist, Outer Hebrides, Scotland, UK, 17 November 1920.

(Hebrides Accentor) for the Hebrides.

P. m. occidentalis Hartert, 1910

Prunella modularis occidentalis Ernst Hartert. ‘Two Races Peculiar to the British Isles’. British Birds 3, no. 10 (1910), 313–315 – type coll. N.C. Rothschild, Tring, UK, 10 April 1893.

(Western Accentor) from Latin occidentālis = western, from Latin occidēns = west, and Latin -ālis = relational adjectival suffix.

P. m. modularis (Linnaeus, 1758)

P. m. mabbotti Harper, 1919

Prunella modularis mabbotti Francis Harper. ‘A New Subspecies of Prunella modularis from the Pyrenees’. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 32, no. 50 (1919), 243–244 – type coll. Harper, Saillagouse, Pyrenees, France, 24 April 1919.

(Mabbott’s Accentor) for Douglas Clifford Mabbott.

P. m. meinertzhageni Harrison and Pateff, 1937

Prunella modularis meinertzhageni James M. Harrison and Pawel Pateff. ‘An Ornithological Survey of Thrace, the Islands of Samothraki, Thasos, and Thasopulo in the North ægean, and Observations in the Struma Valley and the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria.’ Ibis 79, no. 3 (1937), 612 – type coll. Beglik, Bulgaria, 9 June 1933.

(Meinertzhagen’s Accentor) for Richard Meinertzhagen.

P. m. fuscata Mauersberger, 1971

Prunella modularis fuscata ‘Über die östlichen Formen von Prunella modularis (L.).’ Journal für Ornithologie 112, no. 4 (1971), 442 – type coll. W. Berger, Ai-Petri, Crimea, Ukrain/Russia, 13 June 1958.

(Dusky Accentor) from Latin fuscāta = darkened.

P. m. euxina Watson, 1961

Prunella modularis euxina George E. Watson. ‘Aegean Bird Notes I: Descriptions of New Subspecies from Turkey.’ Postilla, no. 52 (1961), 9–11 – type coll. Watson, Ulu Dağ [Uludağ], Bursa Province, Turkey, 29 April 1960.

(Black Sea Accentor) from Greek Εὔξεινος, Eúxeinos = Black Sea.

P. m. obscura (Hablizl, 1783)

Motacilla obscura Carl von Hablitz [Carl Hablitz]. ‘Bemerkungen in der persischen Landschaft Gilanund auf den Gilanischen Gebirgen in den Jahren 1773 und 1774.’ Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie, Bd. 4 (1783), 56 – type coll. ‘Samamische Gebirge’, Gilan Province, Iran, 20–23 July 1774.

(Dark Accentor) from Latin obscūra = dark.


Prunella rubida Japanese Accentor (Temminck and Schlegel, 1845)

Accentor modularis rubidus Coenraad Jacob Temminck and Hermann Schlegel. ‘Animalia vertebrata: Aves’, in Ph.Fr. von Siebold, Fauna Japonica sive Descriptio animalium, quae in itinere per Japoniam, jussu et auspiciis, superiorum, qui summum in India Batava imperium tenent, suscepto, annis 1823-1830: Aves (Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: Arnz, 1848), fasc. 4 (text), pl. 32 (ill.). Collated and Republished as vol. 4 (1850), 69, pl. 32 – type loc. Japan.

(Red Accentor) from Latin rubidus = red.


Prunella immaculata Maroon-backed Accentor (Hodgson, 1845)

Accentor immaculatus Bryan H. Hodgson. ‘On Nepalese Birds’. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 13, no. 146 (1845), 34 – type loc. ‘Nepal‘.

(Immaculate Accentor) from Latin immaculāta = immaculate, unstained.

Robin revisited

Robin

Erythacus rubecula Robin or Redbreast, by J. Gould and H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: John Gould, 1866), livr. 10, pl. 48. Collated and repr. (1873), vol. 2, pl. 48.

[This is an update of a previous post.]

The genus name Erithacus is Latinized from Greek εριθακος, erithakos, which is a bird mentioned by Aristotle, in Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, vol. 4 of The Works of Aristotle, eds. J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 9.632b27–30, where he describes Robins (εριθακος) as the ‘winter version’ of (Black) Redstarts (φοινικουρος, phoinikouros), birds that appear as Robins in winter and as Redstarts in summer – a misidentification of migration, as Redstarts would migrate south at about the same time when Robins would move in from the north.

In the binomial era, it was G. Cuvier who first mentioned Erithacus as a genus in Leçons d’anatomie comparée (Paris: Baudouin, 1800), 1, tab. 2. As of 2020 Erithacus is a monotypic genus since Ryukyu Robin and Japanese Robin have been added to the reinstated Larvivora (as Larvivora komadori and Larvivora akahige, respectively), see forthcoming post.

European Robin Erithacus rubecula = Little Red Robin – from Latin ruber = red, and Latin -culus = diminutive suffix – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758), 1: 188, as Motacilla Rubecula, where Motacilla = Wagtail from Latin mōtāre = to keep moving, and Latin cilla = diminutive, the latter mistaken for ‘tail’ in interpreting ‘Sic … motacilla,… quod semper movet caudam’ [Likewise … the wagtail,… because it is always moving its tail], from Marcus Terentius Varro‘s De Lingua Latina [On the Latin Language], trans. Roland G. Kent (London: William Heinemann/Cambridge, MA: Harcard University Press, 1938) 1: 5.11.76.

The following subspecies are recognized by the IOC:

  • E. r. melophilus = Song-loving Robin – from Greek μελος, melos = song, tune, and Greek φιλος, philos = loving – type specimen collected by W. Burton near the Barnet, London, United Kingdom, 14 December 1896 (reported by Ernst Hartert in ‘Types of Birds in the Tring Museum’, Novitates Zoologicae 27, no. 2 (1920): 474), described by Hartert in ‘Aus den Wanderjahren eines Naturforschers. Reisen und Forschungen in Afrika, Asien und Amerika’, Novitates Zoologicae 8, no. 3 (1901): 317, as Erithacus rubecula melophilus (for elaboration see a previous post);
  • E. r. rubecula = the nominate form;
  • E. r. superbus = Magnificent Robin – from Latin superbus = superb, splendid, magnificent, from Latin super- = over, above (prefix) – collected by A. König on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, winter 1888, description published in ‘Vorläufige Notiz über zwei neue Vogelarten von den Canarischen Inseln’, Journal für Ornithologie 37, no. 186 (1889): 183, as Erithacus superbus;
  • E. r. marionae = Marion’s Robin – for Marion Steinbüchel – type specimen collected by R. von Thanner near Moya, Canary Islands, Spain, (most likely) April 1909, described by Christian Dietzen, J. Pieter Michels and Michael Wink in ‘Formal Description of a New Subspecies of the European Robin from Gran Canaria Island, Spain (Aves: Muscicapidae: Erithacus rubecula marionae subsp. nov.)’, Open Ornithology Journal 8 (2015): 38–42 – IOC added subspecies, 2015 recommendation: Dietzen et al. 2015;
  • E. r. witherbyi = Witherby’s Robin – for Harry F. Witherby – type specimen collected by Witherby near Hammam Righa (as Hammam r’Hira), Algeria, 27 April 1904 (reported by Ernst Hartert in ‘Types of Birds in the Tring Museum’, Novitates Zoologicae 27, no. 2 (1920): 474), described by Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel (Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1910), Heft 6, 753–754. Collated as vol. 1, 753–754, as Erithacus rubecula witherbyi;
  • E. r. valens = Powerful Robin – from Latin valēns = strong, vigorous, healthy – type specimen collected by A.P. Gunali in the Crimean Nature Reserve, Crimea, 19 September 1923, described by L.A. Portenko in Птицы СССР [Birds of the Soviet Union], Guides for the Fauna of the USSR 54 (Moscow: Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences, 1954), 3: 193, as Erithacus rubecula valens;
  • E. r. caucasicus = Caucasus Robin – for Caucasus – described by S.A. Buturlin in ‘Neue Formen aus dem Kaukasus’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte 15, no. 1 (1907): 9, as Erithacus rubecula caucasicus;
  • E. r. hyrcanus = Hyrcanian Robin – for Hyrcania – described by W.T. Blanford in ‘Notes on the Synonymy of some Indian and Persian Birds, with Descriptions of Two New Species from Persia’, Ibis, 3rd ser., 4, no. 13 (1874): 79, as Erithacus hyrcanus;
  • E. r. tataricus = Tatar Robin – for the area populated by people speaking the Tatar language – described by Hermann Grote in ‘Kurze Mitteilungen: Erithacus rubecula tataricus nov. subsp.’Ornithologische Monatsberichte 36, no. 2 (1928): 52.

Cranes

Grus

Grus, by L. Reichenbach, in Avium systema naturale. Das natürliche System der Vögel (Dresden and Leipzig: Expedition der vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1849), pl. 21. All subsequent illustrations refer to this plate.

Gruidae as a family name for Cranes was first used by Nicholas Aylward Vigors in a paper read to the Linnean Society of London, 3 December 1823, published as ‘Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds’, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt 3 (1825): 413 (mentioned), 488 (descr.).

Four genera of extant cranes are being distinguished: Balearica, Leucogeranus, Antigone and Grus.

Two additional genera are being embedded within Grus by the IOC, but might well become split following Carey Krajewski, Justin T. Sipiorski and Frank E. Anderson, ‘Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences and the Phylogeny of Cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae)’, Auk 127, no. 2 (2010): 440–452:

This leaves the following 15 species.

Balearica

Bushtits

The Aeghitalidae family epithet was first mentioned by L. Reichenbach in Avium systema naturale. Das natürliche System der Vögel (Dresden and Leipzig: Expedition der vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1850), pl. 62, as Aeghitalinae, where the stem originates in Aeghitalus, synonym of Remiz (from Polish remiz = Penduline Tit, first used by Feliks Paweł Jarocki in Spis ptaków w gabinecie Zoologicznym Królewsko Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu [List of birds in the Zoological Cabinet of the Royal Warsaw University] (Warsaw: Zawadzki i Węcki, 1819), 21).

Considered to be part of the Paridae family for a long time, now they are classified to be allied to Old World warblers s.l., allied families varying according to source. The IOC recognizes three genera: Aeghitalos, Leptopoecile and Psaltriparus.

Long-tailed Tit

Juv. Long-tailed Tits. Illustration: J. Gould & W. Hart, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 29.

Aegithalos

Aegithalos = tit(mouse) – from Greek αἰγιθαλός, aigithalós = tit(mouse), mentioned by Aristotle, in Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, vol. 4 of The Works of Aristotle, eds. J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 592b17–22, with specific reference to ὀρεινὸς, oreinos = hill or mountain tit(mouse) = Long-tailed Tit (oreinos is translated as orinus in History of Animals, In Ten Books, trans. Richard Cresswell (London: Bell, 1897), 202) – genus mentioned by Jean Hermann (as Johannis Hermann) in Observationes zoologicae quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur, ed. Frédéric-Louis Hammer (as Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer) (Argentorati [Strasbourg]: Koenig, 1804), 214, ascribed to Pipra ? europaea, which, according to David W. Snow in ‘Family Aegithalidae’, in Raymond A. Paynter Jr. (ed.), Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters (Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1967), vol. 12, 52, is a synonym of Parus caudatus of Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 190.

  • Long-tailed TitAegithalos caudatus = Long-tailed Tit – from Latin cauda = tail, and Latin -ātus = possessive adjectival suffix – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 190, as Parus caudatus, where Parus = tit(mouse), used by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 189;
    • (HBWAlive: Northern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. caudatus = the nominate form;
    • A. c. rosaceus = Rosy Tit – from Latin rosa = rose, and Latin‎ -āceus = resembling, used as relational adjectival suffix – brief description in note sent to the 404th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 8 December 1937 by G.M. Mathews, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 58/409 (1938), 44 (indexed as ‘Note on the Name of the British Long-tailed Tit (Ægithalus caudatus rosaceus)’), the main reason of the note, however, was a change of name from Mecistura rosea Rose-mufflin (quoted by Mathews as Rose Muffler) assigned by Edward Blyth in Gilbert White, The Natural History of Selborne, with Its Antiquities, Naturalist’s Calendar, &c., ed. Edward Blyth (London: Orr & Smith, 1836), 111n (used as a synonym of Linnaeus’s Parus caudatus), where Mecistura = longest tail (from Greek μῆκος, mêkos = long, Greek adjectival suffix (interfix)‎ -ρός, -rós, and Greek ουρά, ourá = tail), listed by W.E. Leach in Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Preserved in the British Museum: With Their Localities and Authorities (London: Taylor, 1816), 17, as Mecistura vagans Wandering Tailpie (where vagans = wandering, from Latin vagāns = rambling), a nomen nudum;
    • Long-tailed Tit

      Long-tailed Tits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 28.
    • (HBWAlive: Western Long-tailed Tit) A. c. europaeus = European Tit – for Europe, from Latin Eurōpa, from Greek Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē, and Latin -eus = adjectival suffix – Jean Hermann (as Johannis Hermann) in Observationes zoologicae quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur, ed. Frédéric-Louis Hammer (as Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer) (Argentorati [Strasbourg]: Koenig, 1804), 214, as Pipra ? europaea;
    • A. c. aremoricus = Armorican Tit – for Armorica (present-day Brittany), from (reconstructed) Gaulish Aremorika = place by the sea – type specimen collected by Hugh Whistler near Loudéac (as Loudiac), 21 October 1928, description sent to the 326th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, held in London, 13 March 1929, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 49/331 (1929), 87–88 (indexed as ‘Description of a New Race of Long-tailed Tit (Ægithalos caudatus aremoricus)’);
    • A. c. taiti = Tait’s Tit – for William C. Tait, ornithologist of Portugal – type specimen collected near Coimbra, Portugal, October 1886, described by Collingwood Ingram in ‘Description of a New Form of Long-tailed Tit’, Zoologist, 4th ser., 17/862 (1913), 137, as Ægithalus caudatus taiti;
    • A. c. irbii = Irby’s Tit – for Howard Irby – collected by Irby in Andalusia, ‘near Gibraltar’, Spain, described by R.B. Sharpe and H.E. Dresser in a paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, 18 April 1871, entitled ‘On a New Species of Long-tailed Titmouse from Southern Europe’, published in Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1871, 1871/20, 312–313, as Acredula irbii, where Acredula is of disputed origin, likely from Latin ācer = sharp, in reference to the shrill calls, first used as a genus name by Carl Ludwig Koch (as Karl Ludwig Koch) in System der baierischen Zoologie. Die Säugthiere und Vögel Baierns. Zum Gebrauch als Taschenbuch (Nürnberg: Steinische Buchhandlung, 1816), 199–200, without etymology;
    • A. c. italiae = Italian Tit – for Italy – type specimen collected by Odoardo Ferragni near Cremona, Italy, September 1907, description presented to the 163rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 14 December 1910, by F.C.R. Jourdain, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 27/165 (1910), 39 (indexed as ‘Exhibition and Description of a New Subspecies of Titmouse (Ægithalus caudatus italiæ)’);
    • A. c. siculus = Sicilian Tit – for Sicily, Italy, and the Sicels, from Latin siculus = Sicilian, from Siculī = Sicels – collected by Joseph I.S. Whitaker in Bosco di Fienzza, Sicily, 3 February 1901, on whose behalf the description was presented to the 27th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 20 March 1901, by W.R. Ogilvie Grant, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 11/78 (1901), 52 (indexed as Whitaker, ‘Acredula sicula, n. sp.’), the accompanying, extended description was published in ‘Further Information on Two Recently Described Species of Passerine Birds’, Ibis, 8th ser., 2/5 (1902), 54–58;
    • A. c. macedonicus = Macedonian Tit – for Macedonia – collected by Th. Krüper on Mount Olympus, Macedonia, 1891(?), description presented to the 3rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 21 December 1892, by T. Salvadori and H.E. Dresser, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 1/4 (1892), 15 (indexed as Dresser, ‘Acredula macedonica, sp. n.’, and Salvadori, ‘Acredula macedonica, sp. n.’), solely assigned to Dresser, whereupon an apologetic note was published by R. Bowdler Sharpe in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 1/5 (1893), 23, reinstating Salvadori as coauthor on the species, followed by an explanation of the joint work and extended description by Dresser in ‘On Acredula caudata and Its Allied Forms’, Ibis, 6th ser., 5/18 (1893), 240–241;
    • A. c. tephronotus = Ash-backed Tit – from Greek τεφρός, tephrós = ash-coloured, from τέφρα, téphra = ash, and Greek νῶτον, nôton = back – collected by Thomas Robson near ‘Havancore’, west Anatolia, present-day Turkey, December 1864(?), described by Albert Günther in ‘Description of a New Species of Long-tailed Titmouse from Asia Minor’, Ibis, ns, 1/1 (1893), 95–98, as Orites tephronotus, where Orites = mountaineer, from Greek ὄρος, óros = mountain, used by Paul Möhring (as Pavlo Henrico Gerardo Moehringio) in Avium genera (Bremae [Bremen]: Rump, 1752), 45;
    • A. c. tauricus = Crimean Tit – for Crimea, from Latin Taurica = Crimea, from Greek Ταυρικῆ, Taurikê = Crimea – type specimen collected in the woods of the Crimean Mountains (‘sylvis montium Yaïla’), description sent to be presented to the 94th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 18 February 1903, by M. Menzbier, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 13/95 (1903), 49 (indexed as ‘On New Species of Paridae from the Crimea’), as Acredula rosea taurica;
    • A. c. major = Greater Tit – from Latin maior = greater – type specimen collected by Gustav Radde from the Transcaucasian regions of Lankaran (Germanized as Lenkoran), present-day Azerbaijan, and Tiblisi (as Tiflis), present-day Georgia, description published in Radde, Ornis Caucasica: Die Vogelwelt des Kaukasus. Systematisch und biologisch-geographisch beschrieben (Kassel: Fischer, 1884), 144, as Acredula tephronota var. major;
    • (HBWAlive: Southern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. alpinus = Alpine Tit – from Latin alpīnus = alpine – described by Carl Hablitz (as Carl Hablizl) in ‘Bemerkungen in der persischen Landschaft Gilan und den gilanischen Gebirgen‘, in P.S. Pallas (ed.), Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie (St. Petersburg: Logan, 1783), vol. 4, 49–50, as Parus alpinus;
    • A. c. passekii = Passek’s Tit – for H.P. Passek, Russian consul in Busher (as Bender-Buschir), Iran (then Persia) – described by N. Zarudny (as N. Sarudny) in ‘Beschreibung zweier neuen Formen aus süd-west Persien’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 12/10 (1904), 164, as Acredula tephronota passekii;
    • (HBWAlive: Eastern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. trivirgatus = Three-striped Tit – from Latin prefix tri- = three, and Latin virgātus = striped – described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck and Hermann Schlegel in ‘Animalia vertebrata: Aves’, in Ph.Fr. von Siebold, Fauna Japonica (Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: Arnz, 1848), fasc. 5, pl. 34 (ill.), fasc. 6 (text), collated and republ. as Ph.Fr. von Siebold (as Ph.Fr. de Siebold), C.J. Temmink, H. Schlegel and W. de Haan, Fauna japonica (Lugduni Batavorum: Arnz, 1850), vol. 4, 71, pl. 34, as La mésange à longue queue du Japon Parus (Megisturus) trivirgatus, where Megisturus seems to be a variant spelling of Mecisturus (or Mecistura);
    • A. c. kiusiuensis = Kyushu Tit – for Kyushu, Japan, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected by Nagamichi Kuroda near Imazu, Kyushu, Japan, 10 September 1918, described in ‘Description of Two Apparently New Forms of Aegithalos caudatus from Japan and Korea’, Auk, 40/2 (1923), 313, as Aegithalos caudatus kiusiuensis;
    • A. c. magnus = Great Long-tailed Tit – from Latin magnus = great – type specimen collected by P.L. Jouy near Seoul, Korea, described by Austin H. Clark ‘Eighteen New Species and One New Genus of Birds from Eastern Asia and the Aleutian Islands’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 32/1539 (1907), 475, as Acredula trivirgata magna;
  • Silver-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: Silver-throated Tit) – Aegithalos glaucogularis = Glaucous-throated Tit – from Latin glaucus = glaucous, from Greek γλαυκος, glaukos = glaucous, and from Latin gularis = throated, from Latin gula = throat – type specimen shot near Shanghai, China, remained in the collection of John Gould, whose description was published in his Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 69 (text on opp. p.), as Mecistura glaucogularis (the plate mentions Mecistura glaucugularis, either a proofreading error or an error of illustrator H.C. Richter, even though Gould is named too) – another description of (the same) specimen in Gould’s collection was read by Frederic Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) glaucogularis – both publications were issued in the same month, though Moore’s was dated 11 April and Gould’s no date in April, thus assigned 30th, therefore Moore takes priority – by the time the trinomial concept had been embraced fully, renamed Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis by C.E. Hellmayr in Paridae, Sittidae und Certhiidae (Das Tierreich: Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen, ed. Franz Eilhard Schulze, Lfg. 18; Berlin: Friedländer, 1903), 118 – split from Aegithalos caudatus, 2008 recommendation: Simon Harrap, ‘Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)’, in Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie eds., Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 13. Penduline-tits to Shrikes (Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2008), 79;

    Silver-throated Bushtit

    Silver-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 69.
    • A. g. vinaceus = Vinaceous Bushtit – from Latin vīnum = wine, and Latin -āceus = relational adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Armand David in the mountains of ‘Thibet chinois’, described by J. Verreaux in ‘Note sur les espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux receuillis par M. l’Abbé Armand David dans les montagnes du Thibet chinois’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 6 (1871), 39, as Mecistura vinacea;
    • A. g. glaucogularis = the nominate form;
  • White-cheeked Bushtit (HBWAlive: White-cheeked Tit) – Aegithalos leucogenys = White-cheeked Tit – Latinized from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and Greek γένῡς, génūs = jaw, mouth – collected by William Griffith near ‘Balu Chughur’, Afghanistan, described by Frederic Moore in Thomas Horsfield and Moore, A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East India Company (London: Allen, 1854), vol. 1, 374–375, as Orites leucogenys – the description with an additional paragraph read by Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) leucogenys, although dated 1854 it was published in 1855, wherefore the description in the Catalogue takes priority;
  • White-cheeked Bushtit

    White-cheeked Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 66.
  • Black-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: Black-throated Tit) – Aegithalos concinnus = Elegant Tit – from Latin concinnus = neat, elegant – type specimen collected by T.C. Eyton near Zhoushan (as Chusan), described by John Gould in Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 65 (text on opp. p.), as Psaltria concinna Elegant Tit, where Psaltria = player (fem.) of a plucked, stringed instrument, e.g. lute, harp, from Latin psaltria = lutist, harpist (fem.), first used by C.J. Temminck and G.M.J. Meiffren Laugier (as Le Baron Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse) Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1836), livr. 101, pl. 600, collated and republ. as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1838), vol. 3, opp. pl. 600 (no page numbers, but p. 89);

    Black-throated Bushtit

    Black-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 65.
    • A. c. iredalei = Iredale’s Tit – for Tom Iredale – at the 11 January 1831 Meeting of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, N.A. Vigors presented type specimen from the collection of John Gould, originating from the Himalayas (possibly from Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India), description published in Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt 1 (1831), 23 (indexed as ‘Observations on a Collection of Birds from the Himalayan Mountains, with Characters of New Genera and Species’), as Parus erythrocephalus = Red-headed Tit, Latinized from Greek ἐρυθρός, eruthrós = red, and κεφάλι, kefáli = head – however, Parus eythrocephalus was preoccupied in Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 191 – renamed by E.C. Stuart Baker at the 250th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, held in London, 13 October 1920, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/253 (1920), 8 (indexed as ‘On New Names and Descriptions of New Subspecies of Indian Birds: — Ægithaliscus concinna iredalei, nom. n., Chloropsis aurifrons davisoni, nom. n., Hypothymis azurea sykesi, nom. n., Pellorneum ruficeps jonesi, subsp. n., and Turnix javanica leggei, subsp. n.’), as Ægithaliscus concinna iredalei, where Ægithaliscus is an alternative spelling of Aegithalos, with Latin -iscus = adjectival suffix, meant to be a diminutive form of Aegithalos by Jean Cabanis in Museum Heineanum: Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine, auf Gut St. Burchard vor Halberstadt (Halberstadt: Frantz, 1851), pt 1, 90 (‘Zwergmeise’) – HBWAlive: Red-headed Tit Aegithalos iredalei iredalei;
    • Aegithalos concinnus iredalei

      Aegithalos concinnus iredalei. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 64.
    • A. c. rubricapillus = Red-capped Tit – from Latin rubrī = red, and Latin capillus = hair – type specimen collected in Sikkim, ‘east of the Mishmi Hills’ [sic], November (1???), part of the Seebohm Collection, description sent by C.B. Ticehurst the 295th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 14 October 1925, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 46/299 (1925), 22 (indexed as ‘Descriptions of New Races of Himalayan Birds: Ægithaliscus concinna rubricapillus, Dendrocitta formosæ occidentalis and Seicercus burkii whistleri‘) – HBWAlive: Red-headed Tit Aegithalos iredalei rubricapillus;
    • A. c. manipurensis = Manipur Tit – for Manipur, India, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected by Alan Hume in the ‘eastern hills’ of Manipur, description published in ‘The Birds of Manipur, Assam, Sylhet and Cachar’, Stray Feathers, 11/1–4 (1888), 254, as Ægithaliscus manipurensis;
    • A. c. talifuensis = Dali Tit – for Dali City (as Tali-fu), Yunnan, China, and Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by G. Rippon at the 99th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 21 October 1903, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 14/100 (1903), 18 (indexed as ‘On a New Species of Tit from Western Yunan’), as Ægithaliscus talifuensis;
    • A. c. pulchellus = Beautiful Little Tit – from Latin pulcher = beautiful, pretty, and Latin -lus = diminutive adjectival suffix – collected by G. Rippon near Nanoi, around Loi Mai, Shan States (present-day Myanmar), in 1899, described at the 73rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 17 October 1900, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 11/74 (1900), 11 (indexed as ‘Ægithaliscus pulchellus, n. sp.’);
    • A. c. concinnus – the nominate form;
    • A. c. annamensis = Annam Tit – for Annam, and -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Herbert C. Robinson and C. Boden Kloss on the Đà Lạt Plateau (as Langbian Peaks), Lâm Đồng Province, Vietnam (then Annam, French Indochina) in ‘On the Birds from South Annam and Cochin China, Part II: Pycnonotidæ–Dicæidæ’, Ibis, 11th ser., 1/4 (1919), 606–607, as Ægithaliscus annamensis – HBWAlive: Grey-crowned Tit Augithalos annamensis;
  • White-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: White-throated Tit) – Aegithalos niveogularis = White-throated Tit – from Latin niveō = snowy, snow-white, and Latin gula = throat, and Latin -is = relational adjectival suffix – type specimen collected in ‘northern India’ (more specifically ‘northern Punjab’, according to Charles Vaurie in ‘Systematic Notes on Palaeartic Birds, No. 28: The Families of Remizidae and Aegithalidae’, American Museum Novitates, 1853 (1957), 20), in the collection of John Gould, description was read by Frederic Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) niveogularis – Gould’s own description was published in his Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 67 (text on opp. p.), as Acanthiparus glaucogularis White-throated Tit, where Acanthiparus = Thorny Tree Tit, Latinized from Greek ἄκανθος, ákanthos, from ἀκή, akḗ = thorn, and ἄνθος, ánthos = flower, and Latin parus = tit – both publications were issued in the same month, though Moore’s was dated 11 April and Gould’s no date in April, thus assigned 30th, therefore Moore takes priority;
  • White-throated Bushtit

    White-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 67.
  • Rufous-fronted Bushtit (HBWAlive: Rufous-fronted Tit) – Aegithalos iouschistos = possibly Rusty Crowned Tit – perhaps Latinized construction of Greek ἰόεις, ióeis, from ῑ̓ός, īós = rust, and Greek σχῐστός, skhistós = cloven, split – type specimen collected by B.H. Hodgson in Nepal, listed by Hodgson in ‘Catalogue of Nipalese Birds, Collected between1824 and 1844’, in John Edward Gray (ed.), Zoological Miscellany (London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Sowerby, Wood, 1844), pt 4, 83, as Parus jouschistos, but a nomen nudum, subsequently described by E. Blyth in ‘‟On the Leiotrichane Birds of the Subhemalayas”, by B.H. Hodgson, Esq., with Some Additions and Annotations, a Synopsis of the Inidan Pari, and of the Indian Frigillidae’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 13/156 (n.s., 72) (1845), 943, as Parus ioustichos;
  • Rufous-fronted Bushtit

    Rufous-fronted Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 68.
  • Black-browed Bushtit (HBWAlive: Black-browed Tit) – Aegithalos bonvaloti = Bonvalot’s Tit – for Gabriel Bonvalot – collected by ‘college students’ and Henri d’Orléans near Kangdin (as Tà-tsién-loû), Sichuan, China, 6 June 1890, during an expedition led by Bonvalot, described by É. Oustalet in Annales des sciences naturelles. Zoologie et paléontologie, 7th ser., 12/9 (1892), 284–286 (name on 286), as Acredula Bonvaloti;
    • A. b. bonvaloti = the nominate form;
    • A. b. obscuratus = Obscure Tit – from Latin obscūrātus = obscure, darkened – type specimen collected by Dean Sage Jr. and William G. Carter near ‘Cheng Gou Forks, west of Wenchwan’, (then?) Sichuan, China, 4 December 1934, mentioned by Hugh Birckhead in ‘The Birds of the Sage West China Expedition’, American Museum Novitates, 966 (1937), 13–14, assigned to Aegithaliscus bonvaloti bonvaloti, described by Ernst Mayer in J.K. Stanford, ‘The Vernay-Cutting Expedition to Northern Burma, with Notes on the Collection by Ernst Mayr’, Ibis, 82/4 (1940), 705, as Ægisthaliscus iouschistos obscuratus;
  • Burmese BushtitAegithalos sharpei = Sharpe’s Tit – for Richard Bowdler Sharpe – collected by G. Rippon from Nat Ma Taung (as Mt. Victoria), Myanmar, 25 March 1904, presented to the 106th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 18 May 1904, description published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 14/107 (1904), 84 (indexed as ‘On New Species of Birds from the Southern Chin Hills’), as Ægithaliscus sharpei – lumped with Aegithaliscus bonvaloti by Stuart Baker in ‘Hand-list of the “Birds of India”‘ as part of ‘Birds of the Indian Empire’, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 27/2 (1920), 235, as Aegithalos bonvaloti sharpei – regarding the possible conspecificity of Aegithalos niveogularis, A. iouschistos, A. bonvaloti, A. sharpei, Charles Vaurie in ‘Systematic Notes on Paleartic Birds. No. 28 The Families Remizidae and Aegithalidae’, American Museum Novitates, 1853 (1957), 20, posed lumping them under Aegithalos iouschistos, as this is the oldest name, after which Aegithalos iouschistis sharpei became more widely used, e.g. in David W. Snow (who advised Vaurie), ‘Family Aegithalidae’ in Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. (ed.), Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters (Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1967), vol. 12, 58 – split from Aegisthalos bonvaloti, 2008 recommendation: Simon Harrap, ‘Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)’, in Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie eds., Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 13. Penduline-tits to Shrikes (Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2008) – HBWAlive: as Aegithalos bonvaloti sharpei;
  • Sooty Bushtit (HBWAlive: Sooty Tit) – Aegithalos fuliginosus = Sooty Tit – from Latin fūlīginōsus = sooty, from fūlīgo = soot, and -osus = full of – type specimen collected by Armand David in east Sichuan, described by J. Verreaux in ‘Oiseaux considéré comme nouveaux provenant du voyage de M. l’Abbé Armand David dans le Thibet oriental’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 5 (1869), 36, as Mecistura fuliginosa, a more extensive description appeared in ‘Descriptions des oiseaux nouveaux ou incomplètement connu collecté par M. l’Abbé Armand David pendant son voyage dans le Thibet oriental et la partie adjacente de la Chine’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 7 (1871), 57–58, the accompanying illustration by J. Huet appeared in Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 8 (1878), pl. 5, fig. 4;
  • Pygmy Bushtit (HBWAlive: Pygmy Tit) – Aegithalos exilis = Small Tit – from Latin exīlis = small – described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in Temminck and Guillaume Michel Jérôme Meiffren Laugier (as Le Baron Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse), Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1836), livr. 101, pl. 600, the plate designed by French illustrator Jean-Gabriel Prêtre (as Prêtre) (collated and repr. as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770 (Paris: Levrault, 1838), vol. 3, pl. 600, text on subsequent pages), as Psaltrie mignonne (= Cute Harpist) Psaltria exilis – renamed and moved to Aegithalos, 2016 recommendation: Ulf S. Johansson, Per G.P. Ericson, Jon Fjeldså and Martin Irestedt, ‘The Phylogenetic Position of the World’s Smallest Passerine, the Pygmy Bushtit Psaltria exilis‘, Ibis, 158/3 (2016), 519, 525.
  • Pygmy Bushtit

    Pygmy Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 63.

Leptopoecile

Leptopoecile = Delicate Tit – from Greek λεπτός, leptós = thin, small, delicate, and genus epithet Poecile, which was coined by Jakob Kaup in Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt : Erster Theil welcher die Vogelsäugethiere und Vögel nebst Andeutung der Entstehung der letzteren aus Amphibien enthält (Darmstadt and Leipzig: Leske, 1829), vol. 1, 114, as a genus name (de Dohlemeise) for Parus ater and Parus palustris, where Poecile is derived in a note from the Greek ποικῐ́λος, translated into German bunt, indeed Greek ποικῐ́λος, poikílos = pied, variegated, mentioned in reference to birds by Athenaeus in Δειπνοσοφισταί [Food Connoisseurs], 9.397c (trans. , Banquet des savans par Athénée (Paris: Lamy, 1789), vol. 3, 505–506) via D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895), 148, thought to be Peacock.

  • White-browed Tit-warblerLeptopoecile sophiae = Sophia’s Tit – for Sofya Alexandrovna Severtzova née Poltoratskaya, wife of Nikolai Severtzov – described by Severtzov in ‘Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных’ [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna], Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography], 8/2 (1873), 66 (table), 135 (text), pl. 8, fig. 8–9, as Leptopoecile Sophiae, republ. in English as H.E. Dresser, ‘Notes on Severtzoff’s “Fauna of Turkestan” (Turkestan jevotnie)’, Ibis (trans. H.E. Dresser), 3rd ser., 6/22 (1876), 171–172 – meanwhile, a description was published by Allan Hume in ‘Novelties?’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 513–516, first for a new genus Stoliczkana and also for its sole species Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ, both for Ferdinand Stoliczka – however, in a note in Stray Feathers, 3/4 (1875), 329 (indexed as ‘Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ, Hume, is Leptopœcile sophiæ, Severtsov’) Hume realizes Severtzov’s precedence, although rather petulantly:

    ‘Having at last obtained a copy of N. A. Severtsov’s Vertikalnœ i horizontalnœ raspredlenie Turkestanskikh jevotnikh, published in the Izviestia impera torskavo obstchestva lionvetelei, estestvoznania anthopologii i ethnographii, (vide Stray Feathers, Vol. II., 514). I regret to say that I am not much wiser than I was before. It is written entirely in Russian and printed in the Russian character, and though I have attacked the language, I have not yet made sufficient progress to understand two consecutive sentences. I have, however, discovered one important point from the plates to wit that my Stoliczkana stoliczkæ, has already been named by Severtsov, Leptopœcile sophiæ. I don’t think that publications in Russian should count!’

    White-browed Tit-warbler

    White-browed Tit-warblers. Illustration: J. Gould & W. Hart, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 62.
    • (HBWAlive: White-browed Tit-warbler) L. s. sophiae = the nominate form;
    • (HBWAlive: Stoliczka’s tit-warbler) L. s. stoliczkae = Stoliczka’s Tit – for Ferdinand Stoliczka – described by Allan Hume in ‘Novelties?’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 513–516, as Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ;
    • L. s. major = Greater Tit – from Latin maior = greater – possibly collected by Majev and Wilkins, in Uqturpan County (zh: Wushi County, referred to as Ush-turfan), Xinjiang, China, described by M. Menzbier in ‘On the Birds of the Upper Tarim, Kashgaria’, Ibis, 5th ser., 3/12 (1885), 353, as Leptopoecile sophiae major;
    • L. s. obscurus = Dusky Tit – from Latin obscūrus = dark, dusky – type specimen collected by Nikolay Przhevalsky in mountain forests along the Yangtze (then well-known as Blue River), Tibet, on 16 April 1880 (Julian calendar)/28 April 1880 (Gregorian calendar), description published in ‘Новые виды птиц Центральной Азии’ [New species of birds of central Asia], Zapiski Imperatorskoĭ akademīi nauk/Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 55/1 (1887), 80–83 (republ. N.M. Prjevalsky, ‘On new species of central-Asian birds’ (trans. E. Delmar Morgan), Ibis, 5th ser., 5/20 (1887), 404–406, and Carl Detitius, ‘Przewalsky’s neue Vogelarten Centralasiens: Vortrag des Ehrenmitgliedes der Akademie N.M. Przewalsky in der Sitzung der Physikalisch-mathematischen Abtheilung in St. Peterburg vom 1.–13. Januar 1887’ (trans. C. Detitius), Journal für Ornithologie, 35/179 (1887), 277, though publ. likely 1888), as Leptopoecile obscura;
  • Crested Tit-warblerLeptopoecile elegans = Elegant Tit – from Latin ēlegāns = fine, elegant, handsome – type specimen collected by Nikolay Przhevalsky along the Yellow River (as Huang-Ho), south of Qinghai Lake (as Koko-nor Lake), China, April 1880, description published in ‘Новые виды птиц Центральной Азии’ [New species of birds of central Asia], Zapiski Imperatorskoĭ akademīi nauk/Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 55/1 (1887), 77–79 (republ. N.M. Prjevalsky, ‘On new species of central-Asian birds’ (trans. E. Delmar Morgan), Ibis, 5th ser., 5/20 (1887), 402–404, and Carl Detitius, ‘Przewalsky’s neue Vogelarten Centralasiens: Vortrag des Ehrenmitgliedes der Akademie N.M. Przewalsky in der Sitzung der Physikalisch-mathematischen Abtheilung in St. Peterburg vom 1.–13. Januar 1887’ (trans. C. Detitius), Journal für Ornithologie, 35/179 (1887), 275–276, though publ. likely 1888), as Leptopoecile elegans;

Psaltriparus

A combination of Psaltria and Parus epithets, first mentioned and described by Charles Bonaparte in ‘Sur deux espèccs nouvelles de Paridae’, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 31/14 (1850), 478.

American BushtitPsaltriparus minimus = Least Tit – from Latin miminus = least, smallest – collected by John Kirk Townsend in the forests along the Columbia River, description presented in paper read by ‘Townsend’s friends’ in his absence to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 15 November 1836, published in ‘Description of Twelve New Species of Birds, Chiefly from the Vicinity of the Columbia River’, Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 7/2 (1837), 190, as Parus minimus;

American Bushtit

American Bushtits. Illustration by J.J. Audubon, in John James Audubon, The Birds of North America, from Drawings Made in the United States and Their Territories (New York: Audubon, 1841), vol. 2, pl. 160.
  • P. m. saturatus = Saturated Tit – from Latin saturātus = sated – collected by C.P. Streator near Mount Vernon, WA, USA, 11 December 1895, described by Robert Ridgway in ‘Descriptions of New Genera Species and Subspecies of American Birds’ [sic], Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 16/28 (1903), 109, as Psaltriparus minimus saturatus;
  • (HBWAlive: Plain Bushtit) P. m. minimus = the nominate form;
  • P. m. melanurus = Black-tailed Bushtit – Latinized from Greek μελανουρος, melánouros = black-tailed, from μέλας, mélas = black, and οὐρά, ourá = tail – collected by Joseph Grinnell near San José del Cabo (as San Jose), Baja California Sur (as Lower California), Mexico, 21 October 1925, described by Grinnell and Harry S. Swarth in ‘New Subspecies of Birds (Fenthestes, Baeolophus, Psaltriparus, Chamaea) from the Pacific Coast of North America’, University of California Publications in Zoology, 30/5 (1926), 169, as Psaltriparus minimus melanurus Black-tailed Bush-tit;
  • P. m. grindae = Grinda’s Bushtit – for Don Francisco G. Grinda – collected by L. Belding in Sierra de la Laguna (as Laguna), Baja California Sur (as Lower California), Mexico, 2 February 1883, described by Robert Ridgway in ‘Descriptions of Some New Birds from lower California, Collected by Mr. L. Belding’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 6/10 (1883), 155, as Psaltriparus grindæ Grinda’s Titmouse;
  • P. m. californicus = California Bushtit – for California, USA – collected by Charles W. Townsend near Baird, Shasta County, CA, USA, 27 May 1883, described in a paper by Robert Ridgway read at the 58th Meeting of the Biological Society of Washington, 23 February 1884, published as ‘Descriptions of Some New North American Birds’, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 2 (1884), 89–90, as Psaltriprarus minimus californicus;
  • (HBWAlive: Plumbeous Bushtit) P. m. plumbeus = Lead-coloured Bushtit – from Latin plumbum = lead, and Latin‎ -eus = adjectical suffix – collected by C.B.R. Kennerly and H.B. Müllhausen along the Little Colorado River, NM, USA, 1 February 1854, description read by S.F. Baird to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 20 June 1854, published as ‘Descriptions of New Birds Collected between Albuquerque, N.M., and San Francisco, California, during the Winter of 1853–1854, by Dr. C.B.R. Kennerly and H.B. Müllhausen, Naturalists Attached to the Survey of the Pacific R.R. Route, under Lt. A.W. Whipple’, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 7/3 (1854), 118, as Psaltria plumbea;
  • P. m. dimorphicus = Dimorphic Bushtit – Latinized from Greek διμορφος, dimorphos = dimorphic, from δι- di- = two, and μορφή, morphḗ = shape, form – collected by A.J. van Rossem and Robert Hannum near Racho Santa Barbara, Guirocoba, Sonora, Mexico, 8 June 1937, described by van Rossem and Masauji Hachisuka in ‘A Dimorphic Subspecies of the Bish-tit from Northwestern Mexico’, Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 9/3 (1938), 8, as Psaltriparus minimus diomorphicus;
  • P. m. iulus = Catkin Bushtit – from Latin iūlus = catkin – type specimen collected by P.L. Jouy near Hacienda El Molino, Jalisco, Mexico, described by Jouy in ‘Notes on Birds of Central Mexico, with Descriptions of Forms Believed to Be New’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 16/975 (1874), 776, as Psaltriparus melanotis iulus;
  • P. m. personatus = Masked Bushtit – from Latin persōnātus = masked, from persōna = mask, and -ātus = qualifying adjectival suffix – described by Charles Bonaparte in ‘Sur deux espèccs nouvelles de Paridae’, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 31/14 (1850), 478, as Psaltriparus personatus;
  • (HBWAlive: Black-eared Bushtit) P. m. melanotis = Black-eared Bushtit – from Latin melanōtis = black-eared, from Greek Greek μέλᾱς, mélās = black, and οὖς, oûs = ear, and Latin -is = compositional adjectival suffix – described by Gustav Hartlaub in ‘Description de sept oiseaux nouveaux de Guatemala’, Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne, 7 (1844), 216, as Parus melanotis.

Lanius Shrikes

Great Grey Shrikes

The genus name Lanius found its description in Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi), Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), i. 93, with synonym references of the type species (Lanius Excubitor, 94) to Ulisse Aldrovandi (as Ulyssis Aldrovandi), Ornithologiae, hoc est de avibus historiae, libri XII, ad Clementem VII, cum indice septendecim linguarum copiosissimo (Bononiae [Bologna]: Franciscum de Franciscis Senensem, 1599), v. 386 (Lanius cinereum fæmina) and Francis Willoughby (as Francisci Willughbeii), Ornithologiæ libri tres: in quibus Aves omnes hactenus cognitæ in methodum naturis suis convenientem redactæ accuratè describuntur, descriptiones iconibus elegantissimis & vivarum avium simillimisæri incisis illustratur (Londini [London]: Martyn, 1676), ii. 53 (Lanius cinereus major Great Butcher-bird, Mattagess). Both these works take Lanius from Conrad Gessner (as Conradi Gesneri), Historiæ animalium, Liber III qui est de avium natura (Tiguri [Zürich]: Froschoverum, 1555), 777, who invented the epithet of Lanios/Lanius (from Latin lanius = butcher) as according to him the genus deserved a new name.

An imaginative genus with many synonyms – the Richmond card index has 679 entries (including duplicates the list is still voluminous) – many species taxonomically in flux, the IOC recognizes 28 species, 70 subspecies, though some subspecies may well be split to species level, and some may be lumped.