Regulidae

REGULIDAE Vigors, 1825

Nicholas Aylward Vigors. “Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14,pt 3 (1825), 440n.

Regulus Cuvier, 1800

Regulus G. Cuvier. Les organes du mouvement. Vol. 1 of Leçons d’anatomie comparée de G. Cuvier, edited by C. Duméril. Paris: Baudouin, 1800, tab. 2.

Orchilus Francis Orpen Morris. “A New System of Nomenclature, Illustrated by a List of British Birds.” Naturalist 2, no. 9 (1837), 124.

Reguloides Ed. Blyth. “Notices and Descriptions of Various New or Little Known Species of Birds.” Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal 16, pt 1, n.s., no. 5 (1847), 442.

Phyllobasileus Jean Cabanis. Singvögel. Vol. 1 of Museum Heineanum…. Halberstadt: R. Frantz, 1851, 33.

Corthylio Jean Cabanis. “Zur Naturgeschichte des Pallas’schen Laubhähnchens, Phyllobasileus superciliosus.” Journal für Ornithologie 1, no. 2 (1853), 83.

Regulus ignicapilla Common Firecrest (Temminck, 1820)

Sylvia ignicapilla C.–J. Temminck [C. J. Temminck]. Manuel d’ornithologie; ou, Tableau systématique des oiseaux qui se trouvent en Europe…. Paris: Gabriel Dufour, 1820, 1: 321–322 – type loc. Germany, France.

Regulus ignicapilla Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 398. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 398.

Regulus mystaceus L.-P. Vieillot [L. P. Vieillot]. Faune française, ou Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des animaux qui se trouvent en France…. Paris: F.-G. Levrault, 1826, livr. 15, 231.

Regulus pyrocephalus Christian Ludwig Brehm. Beiträge zur Vögelkunde in vollstandigen Beschreibungen mehrerer neu Entdeckter und vieler seltener oder nicht gehörig beobachteter deutscher Vögel. Neustadt an der Orla: J. K. G. Wagner, 1822, 2: 130.

Regulus ignicapillus Bernhard Meyer. Zusätze und Berichtigungen. Pt 3 of Taschenbuch der deutschen Vögelkunde, nebst kurzer Beschreibung derjenigen Vögel, welche ausser Deutschland, in den übrigen Theilen von Europa vorkommen. Frankfurt am Main: H. L. Brönner, 1822, 109.

Regulus Nilsonii Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands…. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 482.

Regulus brachyrhynchos Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands…. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 483.

Orchilus ignicapillus Francis Orpen Morris. “A New System of Nomenclature, Illustrated by a List of British Birds.” Naturalist 2, no. 9 (1837), 124.

Regulus ignicapilla ignicapilla (Temminck, 1820)

Regulus ignicapilla caucasicus Stepanyan, 1998

Regulus ignicapillus caucasicus L. S. Stepanyan. “Regulus ignicapillus caucasicus Stepanyan, subsp. n. (Regulidae, Aves) из западного Кавказа” [Regulus ignicapillus caucasicus Stepanyan subsp. n. (Regulidae, Aves) from the Western Kaukasus]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal [Zoological Journal] 77, no. 9 (1998), 1078 – type loc. Western Caucasus.

Regulus ignicapilla caucasicus Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “Gender Agreement of Avian Species Names.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club 122, no. 1 (2002), 38.

Regulus ignicapilla tauricus Redkin, 2001

Regulus ignicapillus tauricus Ya. A. Red’kin. “Новый подвид красноголового королька Regulus ignicapillus (Temminck, 1820) (Regulidae, Passeriformes) из Горного Крыма” [A new subspecies of Firecrest Regulus ignicapillus (Temminck, 1820)(Regulidae, Passeriformes) from the Crimean Mountains]. Орнитология [Ornithology], no. 29 (2001), 102 – type loc. Crimea.

Regulus ignicapilla tauricus Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “Gender Agreement of Avian Species Names.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club 122, no. 1 (2002), 38.

Regulus ignicapilla balearicus Jordans, 1923

Regulus ignicapillus balearicus A. von Jordans. “Neue Vogelrassen von den Balearen.” Falco 19, Sonderheft (1923), 3. Republished in “Die Ergebnisse meiner zweiten Reise nach Mallorca. Ergänzungen zu meiner ‘Vogelfauna Mallorcas’.” Journal für Ornithologie 72, no. 2 (1924), 165 – type coll. Lluch [Lluc?], Mallorca, Spain, 24 March 1913, A. von Jordans.

Regulus ignicapilla balearicus Normand David and Michel Gosselin. “Gender Agreement of Avian Species Names.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club 122, no. 1 (2002), 38.

Regulus ignicapillus laeneni J. G. van Marle and K. H. Voous. “Description of a New Subspecies of Firecrest, Regulus ignicapillus laeneni subsp. nov.” Ardea 37, no. 1–2 (1949), 125.

Regulus goodfellowi Flamecrest Ogilvie-Grant, 1906

Regulus goodfellowi W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. “On New Species from Central Formosa.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 16, no. 126 (1906), 122 – type coll. Mount Morrison [Yu Shan], Taiwan, W. Goodfellow.

Regulus regulus Goldcrest (Linnaeus, 1758)

Motacilla Regulus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 188 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Regulus regulus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 394. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 394.

Sylvia regulus Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 161.

Regulus cristatus Karl Ludwig Koch. Die Säugethiere und Vögel Baierns. Bd. 1 of System der baierischen Zoologie. Nürnberg: Steinischen Buchhandlung, 1816, 199.

Regulus vulgaris James Francis Stephens. Birds. Vol. 10, pt 2 of General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: G. Wilkie; J. Walker; J. and A. Arch;
Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown; E. Jeffery; Sherwood, Neeley, and Jones J Law and Whittaker; Baldwin, Cuadock, and Joy; R. Scholey; J. Black and Son; W. Lowe; J. Booth; R. Fenner; S. Bagster; J. Robinson; Rodwell and Martin; Walker and Edwards; and J. Harper, 1817, 758.

Regulus aureocapillus Bernhard Meyer. Zusätze und Berichtigungen. Pt 3 of Taschenbuch der deutschen Vögelkunde, nebst kurzer Beschreibung derjenigen Vögel, welche ausser Deutschland, in den übrigen Theilen von Europa vorkommen. Frankfurt am Main: H. L. Brönner, 1822, 108.

Regulus crococephalus Christian Ludwig Brehm. Beiträge zur Vögelkunde in vollstandigen Beschreibungen mehrerer neu Entdeckter und vieler seltener oder nicht gehörig beobachteter deutscher Vögel. Neustadt an der Orla: J. K. G. Wagner, 1822, 2: 120.

Regulus flavicapillus Johann Andreas Naumann. Naturgeschichte der Vögel Deutschlands, nach einigen Erfahrungen entworfen…. Edited by Johann Friedrich Naumann. Leipzig: Ernst Fleischer, 1823, pt 3, Bd. 2, Abt. 2, 966 table, 968.

Regulus septentrionalis Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands…. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 479.

Regulus chrysocephalus Christian Ludwig Brehm. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands…. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 481.

Regulus auricapillus Prideaux John Selby. Land Birds. Vol. 1 of Illustrations of British Ornithology. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1833, 1: 229.

Orchilus cristatus Francis Orpen Morris. “A New System of Nomenclature, Illustrated by a List of British Birds.” Naturalist 2, no. 9 (1837), 124.

Regulus Linnéi A. W. Malm. Göteborgs och Bohusläns Fauna, Ryggradsdjuren. Göteborg: Göteborgs Handelstidnings Aktiebolags Tryckeri, 1877, 170.

Regulus regulus regulus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Regulus regulus regulus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 394. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 394.

Regulus cristatus sarepta Curt Floericke [Kurt Floericke]. “Bemerkungen über portugiesische Vögel.” Mitteilungen über die Vogelwelt 25, no. 1 (1926), 73.

Regulus regulus teneriffae Seebohm, 1883

Regulus teneriffæ Henry Seebohm. A History of British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of Their Eggs. London: R. H. Porter and Dulau, 1883, 1: 459 – type loc. Canary Islands, Spain.

Regulus regulus teneriffae Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 397. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 397.

Regulus satelles A. König [A. Koenig]. “Vorbemerkung über einige wohl zu unterscheidende und neue Vogelarte von den Canarischen Inseln.” Journal für Ornithologie, 4th ser., 37, no.. 187 (1889), 263.

Regulus regulus ellenthalerae Päckert, Dietzen, Martens, Wink and Kvist, 2006

Regulus regulus ellenthalerae Martin Päckert, Christian Dietzen, Jochen Martens, Michael Wink and Laura Kvist. “Radiation of Atlantic Goldcrests Regulus regulus spp.: Evidence of a New Taxon from the Canary Islands.” Journal of Avian Biology 37, no. 4 (2006), 378 – type coll. Hoya Grande, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, January 1905, R. von Thanner.

Regulus regulus azoricus Seebohm, 1883

Regulus cristatus var. azoricus Henry Seebohm. A History of British Birds, with Coloured Illustrations of Their Eggs. London: R. H. Porter and Dulau, 1883, 1: 454 – type loc. Azores, Portugal.

Regulus regulus azoricus Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 396. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 396.

Regulus regulus sanctaemariae Vaurie, 1954

Regulus regulus sanctae-mariae Charles Vaurie. “Systematic Notes on Palearctic birds. No. 8, Sylviinae: the Genus Regulus.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1684 (1954), 2–3 – type coll. San Pedro [São Pedro], Santa Maria, Azores, Portugal, 3 March 1903, W. R. Ogilvie-Grant.

Regulus regulus sanctaemariae George E. Watson. “Regulus regulus sanctaemariae.” In Sylviidae, Muscicapidae (sensu stricto), Maluridae, Acanthizidae, Monarchidae, Eopsaltriidae, by Ernst Mayer, Melvin A. Traylor Jr. and George E. Watson. Vol. 11 of Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters, edited by Ernst Mayer and G. William Cottrell. Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1986, 288.

Regulus regulus inermis Murphy and Chapin, 1929

Regulus regulus inermis Robert Cuchman Murphy and James P. Chapin. “A Collection of Birds from the Azores.” American Museum Novitates, no. 384 (1929), 15–16 – type coll. Pico Island, Azores, Portugal, 22 July 1927, José G. Correia.

Regulus regulus buturlini Loudon, 1911

Regulus regulus buturlini Harald Loudon-Lisden [Harald von Loudon]. “Über eine neue Form des ‘gelbköpfigen Goldhhähnchens’ [sic] Regulus regulus buturlini subsp. nov.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 19, no. 10 (1911), 158–159 – type coll. Talysch [Talysh Mountains] near Lenkoran [Lankaran], present-day Azerbaijan, 13–26 March 1911, H. von Loudon.

Regulus regulus hyrcanus Zarudny, 1910

Regulus regulus hyrcanus N. A. Sarudny [N. A. Zarudny]. “Орнитологические заметки IV-VIII.” [Ornithological notes IV–VIII.] Наша охота [Our hunt], no. 4 (1910), 116. Republished (name) in “Verzeichnis der Vögel Persiens.” Translated by M. Härms. Journal für Ornithologie 59, no. 2 (1911), 239. Republished as “Замҍтка о южно-каспійскомъ королькҍ (Regulus regulus hyrcanus Zar.).” [Einige Worte über das Süd-Kaspische Goldhänchen [sic] (Regulus regulus hyrcanus Zar.)] Орнитологическій вҍстникъ/Messager ornithologique/Ornithologische Mitteilungen 3, no. 1 (1912), 64 – type loc. Elburgsgebirge [Alborz], Persia [Iran].

Regulus regulus coatsi Sushkin, 1904

Regulus cristatus coatsi P. Sushkin. “New Birds from Palæarctic Asia.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 14, no. 103 (1904), 44 – type coll. jugi Sayan zona subalpina [subalpine zone of Mount Sayan], 1903, P. Sushkin?/Coats?.

Regulus regulus coatsi C. E. Hellmayr. Passeres. Fam. Regulidæ. Pt 17 of Genera avium, by P. Wytsman. Brussels: P. Verteneuil and L. Desmet, 1911, 8.

Regulus regulus tristis Pleske, 1892

Regulus tristis Th. Pleske. “Übersicht der Gattung Regulus, Cuv., nebst Beschreibung einer neuen Art derselben.” Bulletin de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 3rd ser., 35, no. 1 (1892), 145–146 – type loc. Orenburg, Orenburg Oblast, Russia.

Regulus regulus tristis Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 398. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 398.

Regulus regulus himalayensis Bonaparte, 1856

Regulus himalayensis Ch. Bonaparte. “Espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux d’Asie et d’Amerique, et tableaux parallégiquedes Pélagiens ou Gaviæ.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 42, no. 17 (1856), 767 – type loc. Kotgarh, Simla Hill States [Shimla], Himachal Pradesh, India.

Regulus regulus himalayensis Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 397. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 397.

Regulus Himalayensis T. C. Jerdon. The Birds of India, Being a Natural History of All the Birds Known to Inhabit Continental India…. Calcutta: Military Orphan Press, 1863, 2, pt 1: 206.

Regulus cristatus orientalis Henry Seebohm. The Birds of the Japanese Empire. London: R. H. Porter, 1890, 80.

Regulus regulus salimalii H. G. Deignan. “On the Nomenclature of the Himalayan Goldcrests.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 74, no. 9 (1954), 104.

Regulus regulus sikkimensis Meinertzhagen and Meinertzhagen, 1926

Regulus regulus sikkimensis R. Meinertzhagen and A. Meinertzhagen. “Exhibition and Description of New Birds from the Himalayas and Kashmir: Acanthis flavirostris ladacencis, A. f. baltistanicus, Paris monticolus lepcharum, Regulus regulus sikkimensis, Tudus merula buddæ, Prunella rubeculoides muraria, Tetraogallus tibetanus aquilonifer, and Alauda arvensis lhamarum.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 46, no. 305 (1926), 97–98 – type coll. Sikkim, India, November 1876, L. Mandelli.

Regulus regulus yunnanensis Rippon, 1906

Regulus yunnanensis G. Rippon. “On New Species from Western Yunnan (Regulus yunnanensis, Pyrrhula altera, and Accentor taliuensis).” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 16, no. 128 (1906), 19.

Regulus regulus yunnanensis C. E. Hellmayr. Passeres. Fam. Regulidæ. Pt 17 of Genera avium, by P. Wytsman. Brussels: P. Verteneuil and L. Desmet, 1911, 7.

Regulus regulus japonensis Blakiston, 1862

Regulus japonensis T. Blakiston. “On the Ornithology of Northern Japan.” Ibis 4, no. 16 (1862), 320 – type coll. Hakodadi [Hakodate], Yesso [Hokkaido], Japan, October 1861, “birdcatcher”.

Regulus regulus japonensis Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 397. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 397.

Regulus cristatus orientalis Henry Seebohm. The Birds of the Japanese Empire. London: R. H. Porter, 1890, 80.

Regulus regulus kurilensis S. Bergman. “New Birds from the Kuril Islands.” Arkiv för Zoologi 23 B, no. 3 (1931), 4 – type loc. Kunashiri [Kunashir Island] and Yetorofu [Iturup], Kuril Islands.

Regulus madeirensis Madeira Firecrest Harcourt, 1851

Regulus Madeirensis Edward Vernon Harcourt. A Sketch of Madeira: Containing Information for the Traveller, or Invalid Visitor. London: John Murray, 1851, 118 – type loc. Madeira.

Regulus madeirensis Björn Anderson and Lars Svensson. “Holarktis fåglar. Ny forskning förändrar den officiella listan.” Vår Fågelvärld 62, no. 8 (2003), 11.

Regulus Maderensis Edward Vernon Harcourt. “Description of a New Species of Regulus, from Madeira.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22, no. 267 (1854), 153 – type loc. Madeira.

Regulus ignicapilla madeirensis Ernst Hartert. Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel. Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1907, Heft 4, 399. Collated and republished in 1910, 1: 399.

Regulus ignicapillus madeirensis C. E. Hellmayr. Passeres. Fam. Regulidæ. Pt 17 of Genera avium, by P. Wytsman. Brussels: P. Verteneuil and L. Desmet, 1911, 9.

Regulus satrapa Golden-crowned Kinglet Lichtenstein, 1823

Regulus satrapa H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823, 35 – type loc. Am. sept. [northern America].

Regulus cuvierii John James Audubon. The Birds of America. London: published by the author, 1829, pt 11, pl. 55. Ornithological Biography, or an Account of the Habits of the Birds of the United States of America…. Edinburgh: Adam Black, 1831, 1: 288 (descr.) – type coll. Fatland Ford [Fatland], Schuylkill River, Audubon, PA, USA, 8 June 1812, J. J. Audubon.

Regulus reguloides William Jardine. “Regulus reguliodes – Jardine.” In American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States, by Alexander Wilson, with a continuation by Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte], and notes by William Jardine. London: Whittaker, Treacher and Arnot; Edinburgh: Stirling and Kenney, 1832, 127.

Regulus tricolor Thomas Nuttall. A Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of Canada. Cambridge, MA: Hilliard and Brown, 1832, 420.

Corthylio Cuvieri Jean Cabanis. “Zur Naturgeschichte des Pallas’schen Laubhähnchens, Phyllobasileus superciliosus.” Journal für Ornithologie 1, no. 2 (1853), 83n.

Sylvia (Reguloides) Cuvieri G. R. Gray. Accipiters, Fissirostres, Tenuirostres, and Dentirostres. Part 1 of Hand-list of Genera and Species of Birds, Distinguishing Those Contained in the British Museum. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1869, 216.

Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird, 1864

Regulus satrapa var. olivaceus S. F. Baird. Review of American Birds, in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1864, fasc. 5, 65. Republished as North and Middle America. Part 1 of Review of American Birds, in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1873, 65.

Regulus regulus olivaceus C. E. Hellmayr. Passeres. Fam. Regulidæ. Pt 17 of Genera avium, by P. Wytsman. Brussels: P. Verteneuil and L. Desmet, 1911, 8.

Regulus satrapa apache Jenks, 1936

Regulus regulus apache Randolph Jenks. “A New Race of Golden-crowned Kinglet from Arizona.” Condor 38, no. 6 (1936), 239.

Regulus satrapa apache Dean Amadon, Herbert Friedmann, Frederick C. Lincoln, George H. Lowery Jr., Alden H. Miller, James L. Peters, Frank A. Pitelka, Adriaan J. van Rossem, Josselyn Van Tyne, Alexander Wetmore, John T. Zimmer. Check-list of North American Birds. 5th ed. Ithaca, NY: American Ornithologists’ Union, 1957, 453.

Regulus sapatra amoenus A. J. van Rossem “The Golden-crowned Kinglet of Southern California.” Condor 46, no. 2 (1945), 77.

Regulus satrapa satrapa Lichtenstein, 1823

Regulus satrapa aztecus Lawrence, 1887

Regulus satrapa aztecus George N. Lawrence. “Descriptions of New Species of Birds of the Families Sylviidæ, Troglodytidæ and Tyrannidæ.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 4, no. 1–2 (1887), 66.

Regulus satrapa clarus Dearborn, 1907

Regulus satrapa clarus Ned Dearborn. “Catalogue of a Collection of Birds from Guatemala.” Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History. Ornithological Series, no. 125, 1, no. 3 (1907), 134.

Regulus calendula Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Linnaeus, 1766)

Motacilla Calendula Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 337 – type loc. Pensylvania [Pennsylvania], USA.

Regulus calendula H. Lichtenstein. Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung vieler bisher unbekannter Arten von Säugethieren, Vögeln, Amphibien und Fischen. Berlin: T. Trautwein, 1823, 35.

Calendula Pensylvanica M. J. Brisson. Ornithologia; sive, Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates…/Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, espéces & leurs variétés…. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 3: 584.

Parus griseus Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Parus griseus.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 1010.

Sylvia Calendula Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae…. Londini [London]: Sumptibus authoris, 1790, 2: 549.

Regulus rubineus L. P. Vieillot. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de l’Amérique septentrionale. Contenant un grand nombre d’espèces décrites ou figurées pour la première fois. Paris: Desray, 2: 49, pl. 104, 105.Phyllobasileus calendula Jean Cabanis. Singvögel. Vol. 1 of Museum Heineanum…. Halberstadt: R. Frantz, 1851, 33.

Reguloides calendula Carolo Luciano Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Conspectus generum avium. Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, 1850, 1: 292.

Corthylio Calendula Jean Cabanis. “Zur Naturgeschichte des Pallas’schen Laubhähnchens, Phyllobasileus superciliosus.” Journal für Ornithologie 1, no. 2 (1853), 83n.

Regulus calendula grinnelli Palmer, 1897

Regulus calendula grinnelli William Palmer. “The Sitkan Kinglet.” Auk 14, no. 4 (1897), 399 – type coll. Sitka, AK, USA, 23 June 1896, J. Grinnell.

Corthylio calendula grinelli W. DeW. Miller. “Corthylio: A Valid Genus for the Ruby-crowned Kinglet.” Auk 32, no. 2 (1915), 236.

Regulus calendula calendula (Linnaeus, 1766)

Regulus calendula cineraceus Joseph Grinnell. “The Ashy Kinglet.” Condor 6, no. (1904), 25 – type coll. Strain’s Camp, Mount Wilson, Los Angeles County, CA, USA, J. Grinnell.

Corthylio calendula calendula W. DeW. Miller. “Corthylio: A Valid Genus for the Ruby-crowned Kinglet.” Auk 32, no. 2 (1915), 236.

Corthylio calendula cineraceus W. DeW. Miller. “Corthylio: A Valid Genus for the Ruby-crowned Kinglet.” Auk 32, no. 2 (1915), 236.

Regulus calendula arizonensis Allan R. Phillips. “Notas sistematicas sobre aves Mexicanas, III.” Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 25 (1964), 225.

Regulus calendula obscurus Ridgway, 1876

Regulus calendula obscurus Robert Ridgway. “Ornithology of Guadeloupe Island, Based on Notes and Collections Made by Dr. Edward Palmer.” Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories 2, no. 2 (1876), 184 – type coll. Guadeloupe Island [Isla Guadalupe], Baja California, Mexico, 1 April 1875, E. Palmer.

Corthylio obscurus W. DeW. Miller. “Corthylio: A Valid Genus for the Ruby-crowned Kinglet.” Auk 32, no. 2 (1915), 236.

Anatidae

ANATIDAE Leach, 1920

W. E. Leach. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th edn. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820, 68*.

Dendrocygna Swainson, 1837

Dendrocygna William Swainson. On the Natural History and Classification of Birds. The Cabinet Cyclopædia, edited by Dionysius Lardner. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and John Taylor, 1837, 2: 365.

Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Whistling Duck (Linnaeus, 1766)

Anas viduata Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 205 – type loc. Carthagenæ [Cartagena], Colombia.

Dendrocygna autumnalis Black-bellied Whistling Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas autumnalis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 127 – type loc. America.

D. a. fulgens Friedmann, 1947

Dendrocygna autumnalis fulgens Herbert Friedmann. “Geographic Variations of the Black-Bellied, Fulvous, and White-Faced Tree Ducks.” Condor 49, no. 5 (1947), 190–191 – type coll. Lomita Ranch, Texas, U.S., 31 July 1880, G. B. Sennett.

D. a. autumnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Dendrocygna guttata Spotted Whistling Duck Schlegel, 1866

Dendrocygna guttata H. Schlegel. “Anseres.” Monograph 31, livr. 8 of Muséum d’histoire naturelle des Pays-Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement. Leide [Leiden]: E. J. Brill, 1866, 85–87. Collated and republished in vol. 6 (1875?), 85–87 – type coll. Celebes [Sulawesi], Dutch East Indies [Indonesia], between 22 March 1840 and June 1841, Celebes Expedition of E. A. Forsten.

Dendrocygna arborea West Indian Whistling Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas arborea Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 128 – type loc. America.

Dendrocygna bicolor Fulvous Whistling Duck (Vieillot, 1816)

Anas bicolor Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard roux et noir, Anas bicolor, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 136–137 – type loc. Paraguay.

Dendrocygna eytoni Plumed Whistling Duck (Eyton, 1838)

Leptotarsi eytoni T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 111 – type loc. Australia.

Dendrocygna arcuata Wandering Whistling Duck (Horsfield, 1824)

Anas arcuata Thomas Horsfield. Zoological Researches in Java, and the Neighbouring Islands. London: Kingsbury, Parbury, and Allen, 1824, pt 8: pl., descr. Collated and republished in one volume (1824), pl., descr. – type coll. Java, British Empire [Indonesia], Th. Horsfield.

D. a. arcuata (Horsfield, 1824)

D. a. pygmaea Mayr, 1945

Dendrocygna arcuata pygmaea Ernst Mayr. “Birds Collected during the Whitney South Sea Expedition, 55: Notes on the Birds of Northern Melanesia, 1.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1294 (1945), 3 – type coll. Maulo, Wide Bay, New Britain [Papua New Guinea], 6 April 1933, W. F. Coultas (Whitney South Sea Expedition).

D. a. australis Reichenbach, 1850

Dendrocygna arcuata (australis) L. Reichenbach. Novitiae ad synopsin avium…. Dresden: Carl Ramming, 1850, no. 4, p. 4, col. 7 (name). Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 335, Suppl. 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2650–51 (1850 insert) – type coll. Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia, 1 December 1840, aboriginal people of Port Essington.

Dendrocygna javanica Lesser Whistling Duck (Horsfield, 1821)

Anas Javanica Thomas Horsfield. “Systematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java.” Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13, pt 1 (1822), 199 – type coll. Java, British Empire [Indonesia], 1811–1817, Th. Horsfield.

Thalassornis Eyton, 1838

Thalassornis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 70.

Thalassornis leuconotus White-backed Duck Eyton, 1838

Thalassornis leuconotus T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 168 – type loc. Cape of Good Hope?, South Africa.

T. l. leuconotus Eyton, 1838

T. l. insularis Richmond, 1897

Thalassornis insularis Charles W. Richmond. “Catalogue of a Collection of Birds Made by Doctor W. L. Abbott in Madagascar, with Descriptions of Three New Species.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 19, no. 1118 (1897), 678 – type coll. Sakalés River, Madagascar, 15 May 1895, W. L. Abbott.

Cereopsis Latham, 1801

Cereopsis Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici, sive systematis ornithologiaæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. et S. Sotheby, 1801, 67.

Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cape Barren Goose Latham, 1801

Cereopsis N. Hollandandiæ Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici, sive systematis ornithologiaæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. et S. Sotheby, 1801, 67–68 – type loc. New Holland [Australia].

C. n. novaehollandiae Latham, 1801

C. n. grisea (Vieillot, 1818)

Anser griseus Louis Pierre Vieillot. “L’Oie grise, Anser griseus, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Rev. ed. Paris: Deterville, 1818, 23: 336–337 – type coll. Terre de Dièmen [Tasmania], Australia, 1792?, J. Labrillardière.

Branta Scopoli, 1769

Branta Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 67.

Branta bernicla Brant Goose (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Bernicla Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. Europa boreali [Northern Europe].

B. b. nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)

Anser nigricans George N. Lawrence. “Description of a New Species of Anser.” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 4, no. 6–7 (1846), 171–172, pl. 12Egg Harbor, New Jersey, USA, January 1846, G. N. Lawrence.

B. b. bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758)

B. b. hrota (Müller, 1776)

Anas Hrota Othone Friderico Müller [Otto Friedrich Müller]. Zoologiae Danicae prodromus; seu, Animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum…. Hafniæ [Copenhagen]: Typis Hallageriis, 1776, 14.

Branta ruficollis Red-breasted Goose (Pallas, 1769)

Anser ruficollis P. S. Pallas. Spicilegia zoologica, quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species…. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4. Collated and republished in Spicilegia zoologica. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1774, 1: fasc. 6, 21, pl. 4 – type loc. Sibirica.

Branta sandvicensis Nene (Vigors, 1834)

Bernicla Sandvicensis N. A. Vigors. “Bernicla Sandvicensis.” In “Letter on the Breeding of the Sandwich Island Goose (Bernicla Sandvicensis, Vig.),” by Earl of Derby [E. Smith-Stanley]. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 2, no. 17 (1834), 43 – type loc. Sandwich Islands [Hawaiian Islands] (incl. Owhyhee [Hawaii]), USA.

Branta canadensis Canada Goose (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas canadensis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Canada.

B. c. occidentalis (Baird, 1858)

Bernicla occidentalis Spencer F. Baird. Birds. With the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. Vol. 9, pt 2, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes, of Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean…, House of Representatives Report no. 91 (1858), 766 – type coll. Port Townsend, Washington Teritory [Washington], US, 1857, G. Suckley.

B. c. fulva Delacour, 1951

Branta canadensis fulva Jean Delacour. “Preliminary Note on the Taxonomy of Canada Geese, Branta canadensis.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1537 (1951), 7 – type coll. Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands [Haida Gwaii], BC, Canada, 2 April 1917, J.A. Munro.

B. c. maxima Delacour, 1951

Branta canadensis maxima Jean Delacour. “Preliminary Note on the Taxonomy of Canada Geese, Branta canadensis.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1537 (1951), 5–6 – type coll. Round Lake, Grant County, MN, US, 22 April 1876, Geo. B. Sennett.

B. c. parvipes (Cassin, 1852)

Anser parvipes John Cassin. “Descriptions of New Species of Birds, Specimens of Which Are in the Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6, no. 5 (1862), 187–188 – type coll. Vera Cruz [Veracruz], Mexico, Marmaduke Burrough.

B. c. moffitti Aldrich, 1946

Branta canadensis moffitti John W. Aldrich. “Speciation in the White-cheeked Geese.” Wilson Bulletin 58, no. 2 (1946), 96–97 – type coll. Blue Lake, Grant County, WA, US, 26 April 1938, V. Clifford.

B. c. interior Todd, 1938

Branta canadensis interior W. E. Clyde Todd. “A New Eastern Race of the Canada Goose.” Auk 55, no. 4 (1938), 662 – type coll. Port Harrison [Inunjuak], Hudson Bay, QC, Canada, 26 May 1930, W. E. C. Todd.

B. c. canadensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Branta leucopsis Barnacle Goose (Bechstein, 1803)

Anas leucopsis Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Ornithologisches Taschenbuch von und für Deutschland; oder, Kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel Deutschlands für Liebhaber dieses Theils der Naturgeschichte. Leipzig : Carl Friedrich Enoch Richter, 1803, pt 2, 424–425 – type loc. Norden der Erde [Nordic countries].

Branta hutchinsii Cackling Goose (Richardson, 1832)

Anser Hutchinsii John Richardson. “Anser Hutchinsii (Richards.) Hutchin’s Barnacle Goose.” In The Birds. Pt 2 of Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America…, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, 1832 (“1831”), 470–471 – type coll. Melville Peninsula, District of Franklin [Nunavut], Canada, 19 June 1822, Second Voyage of Captain William Edward Parry.

B. h. leucopareia (Brandt, 1836)

Anser leucopareia J. F. Brandt. “Note sur l’Anser canadensis et l’Anser pictus de la Zoographie de Pallas.” Bulletin scientifique 1, no. 5 (1836), 37.

B. h. minima Ridgway, 1885

Branta minima Robert Ridgway. “Note on the Anser leucopareius of Brandt.” 8, no. 475, no. 2 (1885), 21–22.

B. h. taverneri Delacour, 1951

Branta hutchinsii taverni Jean Delacour. “Preliminary Note on the Taxonomy of Canada Geese, Branta canadensis.” American Museum Novitates, no. 1537 (1951), 7 – type coll. Colusa, CA, US, 4 December 1913, H. W. Marsden.

B. h. hutchinsii (Richardson, 1832)

Anser Brisson, 1760

Anser M. J. Brisson. Ornithologia; sive Synopsis methodica sistens avium divisionem in ordines, sectiones, genera, species, ipsarumque varietates…/Ornithologie; ou, Méthode contenant la division des oiseaux en ordres, sections, genres, espéces & leurs variétés…. Paris: Cl. Jean-Baptiste Bauche, 1760, 1: 58, 6: 261–262.

Anser indicus Bar-headed Goose (Latham, 1790)

Anas indica Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae…. Londini [London]: Sumptibus authoris, 1790, 2: 839–840 – type loc. India.

Anser canagicus Emperor Goose (Sevastianov, 1802)

Anas canagica A. F. Sewastianoff [A. F. Sevastyanov]. “Description d’un nouvelle espèce de canard et d’une varieté de l’huitrier, qui de trouve dans le Cabinet d’Histoire naturelle de l’Académie imperiale de sciences.” Nova acta Academiae scientiarum imperialis petropolitanae 13 (1802), 347–349 – type loc. possibly Canaga [Kodiak Island], Russian America [Alaska].

Anser rossii Ross’s Goose Cassin, 1861

Anser Rossii J. Cassin. “Communication in Reference to a New Species of Goose from Arctic America.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13 (1861), 72–73 – type coll. Great Slave Lake, NT, Canada, 29 May 1860, R. Kennicott.

Anser caerulescens Snow Goose (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas cærulescens Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. Canada.

A. c. caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1758)

A. c. atlanticus (Kennard, 1927)

Chen atlantica F. Kennard. “The Specific Status of the Greater Snow Goose.” Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club 9 (1927), 93 – type coll. Princess Anne Club, Back Bay, Princess Anne County, VA, US, between 2 and 9 December 1922, F. Kennard.

Anser anser Greylag Goose (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Anser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Europe and America.

A. a. anser (Linnaeus, 1758)

A. a. rubrirostris Swinhoe, 1871

Anser cinereus var. rubirostris Robert Swinhoe. “A Revised Catalogue of the Birds of China and Its Islands, with Descriptions of New Species, References to Former Notes, and Occasional Remarks.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1871, pt 2, no. 26–27 (1871), 416–17 – type coll. Canton [Guangzhou], Guangdong, China, April 1868, S. Bligh.

Anser cygnoides Swan Goose (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Cygnoid (abbr. of Cygnoides) Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 122 – type loc. Asia.

Anser fabalis Taiga Bean Goose (Latham, 1787)

Anas Fabalis John Latham. Supplement to the General Synopsis of Birds. London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1787, 297 (name).

A. f. fabalis (Latham, 1787)

A. f. johanseni Delacour, 1951

Anser fabalìs johanseni J. Delacour. “Taxonomic Notes on the Bean Geese, Anser fabalis Lath.” Ardea 39, no. 1–3 (1951), 139–140 – type coll. Tai-pai-Shan [Maount Taibai], Tsinling Mountains [Qinling Mountains], Shaanxi, China, 14 November 1905, Japanese collectors for Alan Owston.

A. f. middendorffii Severtsov, 1873

Anser Middendorfii N.A. Severtsov. ‘Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных’ [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna]. Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography] 8, no. 2 (1873), 66 (table), 149 (text). Republished in ‘Faune des vertébrés du Turkestan.’ Translated by Léon Olphe Galliard. Zeitschrift für die gesammte Ornithologie 4, nos. 1–2 (1887), 140–141. And republished in H.E. Dresser ‘Notes on Severtzoff’s “Fauna of Turkestan” (Turkestanskie Jevotnie)’. Translated by H.E. Dresser and Carl Craemers. Ibis, 3rd ser., vol. 6, no. 24 (1876), 416–417 – type Oudskoï Ostrog, Khabarovsk Territory [Khabarovsk Krai], Russia.

Anser brachyrhynchus Pink-footed Goose Baillon, 1834

Anser Brachyrhynchus L. A. F. Baillon. “Catalogue des Mammiferes, Oiseaux, Reptiles, Poissons et Mollusques testacés marins, observés dans l’arrondissementd’Abbeville.” Mémoires de la Société royale d’émulation d’Abbeville, 2nd ser., 1 (1834, “1833”), 74–75 – type loc. Arrondissement d’Abbeville, Dept. of Somme, France.

Anser serrirostris Tundra Bean Goose Gould, 1852

Anser serrirostris John Gould. “On a New Species of Goose from China, Collected by the Late Lieut. Ince at Shanghai.” The Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science and Art, no. 1836 (1852), 306 – type coll. Shanghai, China, J. M. R. Ince.

A. s. rossicus Buturlin, 1933

Anser serrirostris rossicus S. A. Buturlin. Определитель промысловых птиц [Identification of game birds]. M. [Moscow]: Central Bureau of Local History of the RSFSR, 1933, 1: 60 – type loc. Beluchaya Bay, Yamal Peninsula, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic [Russia].

A. s. serrirostris Gould, 1852

Anser albifrons Greater White-fronted Goose (Scopoli, 1769)

Branta albifrons Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 69.

A. a. flavirostris Dalgety and Scott, 1948

Anser albifrons flavirostris C. T. Dalgety and Peter Scott. “A New Race of the Whitefronted Goose.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 68, no. 6 (1948), 115–117 – type coll. North Slob, Co. Wexford, Éire [Ireland], 26 November 1947, C. T. Dalgety.

A. a. albifrons (Scopoli, 1769)

A. a. elgasi Delacour and Ripley, 1975

Anser albifrons elgasi Jean Delacour and S. Dillon Ripley. “Description of a New Subspecies of the White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons.” American Museum Novitates, no. 2565 (1975), 2–3 – type coll. Sacramento, CA, US, 20 December 1967, S. R. Wilbur.

A. a. gambelli Hartlaub, 1852

Anser Gambelli G. Hartlaub. “Descriptions de quelques nouvelles espèces d’oiseaux.” Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée, 2nd ser., 4 (1852), 7 – type loc. Texas, US, and sud de l’Amerique de nord [Southern United States], US.

A. a. sponsa Banks, 2011

Anser albifrons sponsa Nicolas S. Banks. “Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae).” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124, no. 3 (2011), 231 – type coll. Hooper Bay, AK, US, 11 May 1942, C. E. Gillham.

Anser erythropus Lesser White-fronted Goose (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas erythropus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Coscoroba Reichenbach, 1853

Coscoroba L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1853, 10. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 62, Suppl. 27, fig. 966 (1850 insert).

Coscoroba coscoroba Coscoroba Swan (Molina, 1782)

Anas coscoroba Giovanni Ignazio Molina [Juan Ignacio Molina]. Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili…. Bologna: Nella Stamperia di S. Tommaso d’Aquino, 1782, 234 (text), 344 (descr.).

Cygnus Garsault, 1764

Cygnus F. A. P. de Garsault. Les figures des plantes et animaux d’usage en medecine, décrits dans la Matiere Medicale de Geoffroy Medecin. Paris: Chez l’auteur, 1764, 5: pl. 688.

Cygnus atratus Black Swan (Latham, 1790)

Anas atrata Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae…. Londini [London]: Sumptibus authoris, 1790, 2: 834 – type loc. novæ Hollandiæ [Australia].

Cygnus melancoryphus Black-necked Swan (Molina, 1782)

Anas melancorypha Giovanni Ignazio Molina [Juan Ignacio Molina]. Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili…. Bologna: Nella Stamperia di S. Tommaso d’Aquino, 1782, 234 (text), 344 (descr.).

Cygnus olor Mute Swan (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas Olor Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas Olor.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 502 – type loc. Russia [European Russia] and Sibiria [Siberia].

Cygnus buccinator Trumpeter Swan Richardson, 1831

Cygnus buccinator John Richardson. “Cygnus buccinator, Richardson – Trumpeter Swan.” In “Catalogue of the New Species of American Birds, described in the ‘Northern Zoology’,” by John Richardson and W. Swainson. Appendix 2 of American Ornithology, or the Natural History of the Birds of the United States, by Alexander Wilson and Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. Edinburgh: Constable; London: Hurst, Chance, 1831, 345 – type loc. Hudson Bay, Canada.

Cygnus columbianus Tundra Swan (Ord, 1815)

Anas Columbianus George Ord. “Zoology of North America.” In A New Geographical, Historical, and Commercial grammar, and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World…, by William Guthrie. Philadelphia: Johnson and Warner, 2: 319 – type loc. Chilluckittequaw nation [land of a Chinookan people].

C. c. columbianus (Ord, 1815)

C. c. bewickii Yarrell, 1830

Cygnus Bewickii William Yarrell. “Cygnus Bewickii.” In “Proceedings of Learned Societies. Linnæan Society,” by Richard Taylor and Richard Phillips. Philosophical Magazine…, n.s., 7, no. 38 (1830), 146 – type loc. England, UK.

Cygnus cygnus Whooper Swan (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Cygnus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 122 – type loc. Europa [Europe] and America septentrionali [Northern America].

Stictonetta Reichenbach, 1853

Stictonetta L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 53, Suppl. 22, fig. 431.

Stictonetta naevosa Freckled Duck (Gould, 1841)

Anas nævosa J. Gould. “Description of New Birds from Australia.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 8 (“1840”), no. 95 (1841), 177 – type loc. Western Australia.

Hymenolaimus Gray, 1843

Hymenolaimus George Robert Gray. “Some Remarks on the Soft-billed Duck of Latham.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History… 11, no. 71 (1843), 370.

Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos Blue Duck (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas malacorhynchos Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas malacorhynchos.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 526 – type loc. nova Seelandia [New Zealand].

Tachyeres Owen, 1875

Tachyeres R. Owen. On Dinornis (Part XX.): Containing a Restoration of of the Skeleton of Cnemiornis calcitrans, Ow., with Remarks on Its Affinities in the Lamellirostral Group.” Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 9, pt 3 (1875), 254.

Tachyeres patachonicus Flying Steamer Duck (King, 1831)

Micropterus Patachonicus P. P. King. ‘Characters of New Genera and Species of Birds from the Straits of Magellan.” Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt 1, no. 1 (1831), 15 – type coll. western part of Strait of Magellan, P. P. King.

Tachyeres pteneres Fuegian Steamer Duck (Forster, 1844)

Anas pteneres Ioannes Reynoldus Forster [Johann Reinhold Forster]. Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis terras…. Edited by Henrico Lichtenstein [Hinrich Lichtenstein]. Berolini [Berlin] Ex officina Academica, 1854, 338–340 – tyep loc. Magellanicis terris [land by Strait of Magellan].

Tachyeres brachypterus Falkland Steamer Duck (Latham, 1790)

Anas brachyptera Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae…. Londini [London]: Sumptibus authoris, 1790, 2: 834–835 – type loc. in insulis Falklandices [Falkland Islands].

Tachyeres leucocephalus Chubut Steamer Duck Humphrey and Thompson, 1981

Tachyeres leucocephalus Philip S. Humphrey and Max C. Thompson. “A New Species of Steamer-duck (Tachyeres) from Argentina.” Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, no. 95 (1981), 3–10 – type coll. Puerto Melo, Provicia de Chubut [Chubut Province], Argentina, 24 September 1979, M. C. Thompson and P. S. Humphrey.

Merganetta Gould, 1842

Merganetta J. Gould. “Characters of a New Genus and Species of Anatidæ.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 9 (“1841”), no. 106 (1842), 95.

Merganetta armata Torrent Duck Gould, 1842

Merganetta armata J. Gould. “Characters of a New Genus and Species of Anatidæ.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 9 (“1841”), no. 106 (1842), 95–96 – type coll. Andes of Chile, Th. Bridges.

M. a. colombiana Des Murs, 1845

Merganetta Colombiana M. O. Desmurs [M. Œ. des Murs]. “Descriptions de quelques espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux.” Revue Zoologique 8 (1845), 179 – type loc. Colombia.

M. a. leucogenis (Tschudi, 1843)

Anas leucogenis J. J. von Tschudi. “Diagnosen einiger neuer peruanischer Vögel.” Archiv für Naturgeschichte 9, Bd. 1 (1843), 390 – type loc. in Antibus elevitis [high Andes?].

M. a. turneri Sclater and Salvin, 1869

Merganetta turneri Philip Lutley Sclater and Osbert Salvin. Exotic Ornithology: Containing Figures and Descriptions of New or Rare Species. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1869, 199–200, pl. 100 – type coll. Tinta, Peru, H. Whitely.

M. a. garleppi Berlepsch, 1894

Merganetta garleppi H. von Berlepsch. “Beschreibung einer neuen Merganetta-Art aus Bolivia.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 2, no. 7 (1894), 110–111 – type coll. Cocotal, Bolivia, 14 March 1891, Gustav Garlepp.

M. a. berlepschi Hartert, 1909

Merganetta berlepschi Ernst Hartert. “Merganetta berlepschi spec. nov.” In “Notes sur les oiseaux de la République Argentine,” by E. Hartert and S. Venturi. Novitates Zoologicae 16, no. 2 (1909), 244–245 – type coll. Tucuman [San Miguel de Tucumán], Argentina, 13 June 1906, L. Dinelli.

M. a. armata Gould, 1842.

Plectropterus Stephens, 1824

Plectropterus J. F. StephensPlectropterus. Plectropterus.” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 6.

Plectropterus gambensis Spur-winged Goose (Linnaeus, 1766)

Anas gambensis Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 195 – type loc. Gambensi regno [The Gambia].

P. g. gambensis (Linnaeus, 1766)

P. g. niger Sclater, 1877

Plectropterus niger P. L. Sclater. “Notice of an Apparently New Species of Spur-winged Goose of the Genus Plectropterus.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1877, pt 1, no. 3 (1877), 48, pl. 7 – type loc. Zanzibar.

Sarkidiornis Eyton, 1838

Sarkidiornis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 20–21.

Sarkidiornis sylvicola Comb Duck Ihering and Ihering, 1907

Sarkidiornis sylvicola Hermann von Ihering and Rodolpho von Ihering. As aves do Brazil. Vol. 1 of Catalogos da fauna brazileira, edited by Museu Paulista [Museu do Ipiranga]. São Paulo: Typographia do Diario Official, 1907, 72, 408–409.

Sarkidiornis melanotos Knob-billed Duck (Pennant, 1769)

Anser melanotos Thomas Pennant. Indian Zoology. London, 1769, 12–13, pl. 11 – type loc. Ceylon [Sri Lanka].

Cyanochen Bonaparte, 1856

Cyanochen Ch. Bonaparte. “Excursion dans les divers Musées d’Allemagne, de Hollande et de Belgique, et Tableaux paralléliques de l’ordre des Palmipèdes.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 43, no. 13 (1856), 648.

Cyanochen cyanoptera Blue-winged Goose (Rüppell, 1845)

Bernicla cyanoptera Eduard Rüppell. Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Nord-Ost-Afrika’s, nebst Abbildung und Beschreibung von fünfzig Theils unbekannten, Theils noch nicht bildlich dargestellten Arten. Frankfurt a. M. [Frankfurt am Main]: S. Schmerber’schen Buchhandlung, 1845, 129–130, pl. 47 – type loc. Schoa [Shewa], Ethiopia.

Alopochen Stejneger, 1885

Alopochen Leonhard Stejneger. Natural History of Birds. Vol. 4 of The Standard Natural History, edited by J. S. Kingsley. Boston: S. E. Cassino, 1885, 141.

Alopochen aegyptiaca Egyptian Goose (Linnaeus, 1766)

Anas ægyptiaca Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 197 – type loc. Ægypto [Egypt]?

Alopochen mauritiana Mauritius Sheldgoose† (Newton and Gadow, 1893)

Sarcidiornis mauritianus Edward Newton and Hans Gadow. “On Additional Bones of the Dodo and Other Extinct Birds of Mauritius Obtained by Mr. Théodore Sauzier.” Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 13, pt 7, no. 2 (1893), 282 (name), 290–291 (descr.), pl. 34, fig. 9–10 – type loc. Mare aux Songes, Mauritius.

Alopochen kervazoi Reunion Sheldgoose† (Cowles, 1994)

Mascarenachen kervazoi Graham S. Cowles. “A New Genus, Three New Species and Two New Records of Extinct Holocene Birds from Réunion Island, Indian Ocean/Un nouveau genre, trois nouvelles espèces et deux citations nouvelles d’oiseaux holocènes 2teints de l’ile de la Réunion, Océan Indien.” Geobios 27, no. 1 (1994), 87–93.

Neochen Oberholser, 1918

Neochen Harry C. Oberholser. “Diagnosis of a New Genus of Anatidae from South America.” Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 8, no. 17 (1918), 571.

Neochen jubata Orinoco Goose (Spix, 1825)

Anser jubatus J. B. de Spix [J. B. von Spix]. Avium species novae, quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis MDCCCXVII-MDCCCXX. Monachii [München]: Typis Franc. Seraph. Hübschmanni, 1825, 2: 84, pl. 108 – type coll. Praya das Onças in the Solimoëns [Solimõens River], Brasil, 1817–1820, J. B. von Spix.

Chloephaga Eyton, 1838

Chloephaga T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 13.

Chloephaga melanoptera Andean Goose (Eyton, 1838)

Anser melanopterus T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 93 – type loc. Lake Titicaca.

Chloephaga picta Upland Goose (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas picta Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas picta.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 504 – type loc. Staatenland [Isla de los Estados], Argentina.

C. p. picta (Gmelin, 1789)

C. p. leucoptera (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas leucoptera Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas leucoptera.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 505 – type loc. Falkland Islands.

Chloephaga hybrida Kelp Goose (Molina, 1782)

Anas Hybrida Giovanni Ignazio Molina [Juan Ignacio Molina]. Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chili. Bologna: Nella Stamperia di S. Tommaso d’Aquino, 1782, 241–242, 344 – type loc. Isole di Chiloe [Chiloé Island].

C. h. hybrida (Molina, 1782)

C. h. malvinarum Phillips, 1916

Chloëphaga hybrida malvinarum John C. Phillips. “A New Form of Chloëphaga hybrida.” Auk 33, no. 4 (1916), 423 – type coll. Port Stephens, Falkland Islands, 13 December 1915, W. Sprague Brooks.

Chloephaga poliocephala Ashy-headed Goose Sclater, 1857

Chloephaga poliocephala Philip Lutley Sclater. “Note on the Upland Goose.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 25, no. 334 (1857), 128.

Chloephaga rubidiceps Ruddy-headed Goose Sclater, 1861

Chloëphaga rubidiceps Philip Lutley Sclater. “Catalogue of the Birds of the Falkland Islands.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 28 (“1860”), no. 441 (1861), 387–388, pl. 178 – type coll. Falkland Islands, Capt. Pack.

Radjah Reichenbach, 1853

Radjah L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 10. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 53, Suppl. 22, fig. 396.435–436.

Radjah radjah Raja Shelduck (Garnot and Lesson, 1828)

anas radjah P. Garnot and R. P. Lesson. “Le canard radjah, anas radjah, Less. et Garn.” In Manuel d’ornithologie, ou Description des genres et des principales espèces d’oiseaux, by R. P. Lesson. Paris: Roret, 1828, 2: 417–418 – type coll. Bourou Island, Buru, Maluku Islands, Indonesia, September 1823, Thé􏰀odore de Blois de La Calante.

R. r. radjah (Garnot and Lesson, 1828)

R. r. rufitergum (Hartert, 1905)

Tadorna radjah rufitergum Ernst Hartert. “List of Birds Collected in North-western Australia and Arnhem-land by Mr. J. T. Tunney.” Novitates zoologicae 12, no. 1 (1905), 205 – type coll. South Alligator River, Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, 13 October 1902, J. T. Tunney.

Tadorna Boie, 1822

Tadorna F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822, 140 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Tadorna tadorna Common Shelduck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Tadorna Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 122–123 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Tadorna ferruginea Ruddy Shelduck (Pallas, 1764)

Anas ferruginea P.S. Pallas. “Adumbratiunculae avium variarum præcedenti elencho insertarum, sed quae in Systemate naturæ illustr. Linnæi nondum extant.” [Sketches of various birds inserted in the previous list, absent from the Systema naturae of Linneaus.] In Beredeneerde catalogus, van eene, bij uitstek fraayeen weergalooze verzameling, zoo van inlandsche als uitheemsche vogelen, viervoetige en gekorvene dieren…, by A. Vroeg. ‘s Gravenhage: Pieter van Os, 1764, 5.

Tadorna cana South African Shelduck (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas cana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas cana.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 510–511 – type loc. Caput bonae spei [Cape of Good Hope], South Africa, and Coromandel [Mauritius?].

Tadorna tadornoides Australian Shelduck (Jardine and Selby, 1828)

Anas tadornoides William Jardine and Prideaux John Selby. Illustrations of Ornithology. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1828, 2, pl. 62, descr. foll. p – type loc. New Holland [Australia].

Tadorna variegata Paradise Shelduck (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas variegata Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas variegata.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 505 – type loc. nova Seelandia [New Zealand].

Tadorna cristata Crested Shelduck† (Kuroda, 1917)

Pseudotadorna cristata Nagamichi Kuroda. “On one new genus and three new species of birds from Corea and Tsushima.” Tori 1, no. 5 (1917), 1–3 – type coll. Naktung River [Nakdong River] near Fusan [Busan], South Korea, 3(?) December 1916, N. Kuroda.

Malacorhynchus Swainson, 1831

Malacorhynchus William Swainson. “On Those Birds Which Exhibit the Typical Perfection of the Family of Antidæ.” Journal of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 2, no. 1 (1831), 18.

Malacorhynchus membranaceus Pink-eared Duck (Latham, 1801)

Anas membranaceus Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici, sive systematis ornithologiaæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. et S. Sotheby, 1801, 69 – type loc. Nova Hollandia [Australia].

Salvadorina Rothschild and Hartert, 1894

Salvadorina Walter Rothschild and Ernst Hartert. “Salvadorina waigiuensis Gen. Nov. et Sp. Nov.” Novitates Zoologicae 1, , no. 4 (1894), 683.

Salvadorina waigiuensis Salvadori’s Teal Rothschild and Hartert, 1894

Salvadorina waigiuensis Walter Rothschild and Ernst Hartert. “Salvadorina waigiuensis Gen. Nov. et Sp. Nov.” Novitates Zoologicae 1, no. 4 (1894), 683–684 _ type coll. Waigiu [Waigeo], West Papua, Indonesia, A. Bruijn.

Cairina Fleming, 1822

Cairina John Fleming. The Philosophy of Xoology, or A General View of the Structure, Functions, and Classification of Animals. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable, 1822, 2: 260.

Cairina moschata Muscovy Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas maschata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. India [error].

Asarcornis Salvadori, 1895

Asarcornis T. Salvadori. Catalogue of the Chenomorphæ (Palamedeæ, Phœnicopteri, Anseres), Crypturi, and Ratitæ in the Collection of the British Museum. Vol. 27 of Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1895, 46 (table), 59–60 (descr.).

Asarcornis scutulata White-winged Duck (Müller, 1842)

Anas scutulata Salomon Müller. Land- en volkenkunde. In Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen, by C. J. Temminck, edited by J. A. Susanna. Leiden: S. and J. Luchtmans and C. C. van der Hoek, 1842, no. 5, 159n. Collated and reprinted 1847, 159n – type loc. Mount Salak, Java, Dutch East Indies [Indonesia].

Pteronetta Salvadori, 1895

Pteronetta T. Salvadori. Catalogue of the Chenomorphæ (Palamedeæ, Phœnicopteri, Anseres), Crypturi, and Ratitæ in the Collection of the British Museum. Vol. 27 of Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1895, 46 (table), 63 (descr.).

Pteronetta hartlaubii Hartlaub’s Duck (Cassin, 1860)

Querquedula Hartlaubii John Cassin. “Catalogue of Birds Collected on the Rivers Camma and Ogobai, Western Africa, by Mr. P. B. Duchaillu, in 1858, with Notes and Descriptions of New Species.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 11 (“1859”), no. 2 (1860), 175 – type coll. Rivers Camma and Ogobai, Western Africa, 1858, P. B. Duchaillu [P. B. Du Chaillu].

Aix Boie, 1828

Aix F. Boie. “Bemerkungen über mehrere neue Vogelgattungen.” Isis von Oken 21, Heft 3 (1828), col. 329.

Aix sponsa Wood Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Sponsa Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 128 – type loc. America septentrionali [North America].

Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas galericulata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 128 – type loc. China.

Chenonetta Brandt, 1836

Chenonetta Joanne Friderico Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Aves. Fasc. 1 of Descriptiones et icones animalium Rossicorum novorum vel minus rite cognitorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Academiae scientiarum, 1836, 5.

Chenonetta jubata Maned Duck (Latham, 1801)

Anas jubata Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici, sive systematis ornithologiaæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. et S. Sotheby, 1801, 69 – type loc. Nova Hollandia [Australia].

Nettapus Brandt, 1836

Nettapus Joanne Friderico Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Aves. Fasc. 1 of Descriptiones et icones animalium Rossicorum novorum vel minus rite cognitorum. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Academiae scientiarum, 1836, 5.

Nettapus auritus African Pygmy Goose (Boddaert, 1783)

Anas aurita P. Boddaert. Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. D’Aubenton…. Utrecht, 1783, 48 – type loc. Madagascar.

Nettapus coromandelianus Cotton Pygmy Goose (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas coromandeliana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas coromandelianus.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 522 – type loc. Coromandel, New Zealand.

N. c. coromandelianus (Gmelin, 1789)

N. c. albipennis Gould, 1842

Nettapus Coromandelianus John Gould. The Birds of Australia. London: published by author, pt 6, pl., descr. Collated and republished as 7 (1848), pl. 5, descr. foll. p. – type loc. Eastern Australia.

Nettapus pulchellus Green Pygmy Goose Gould, 1842

Nettapus pulchellus John Gould. The Birds of Australia. London: published by author, pt 6, pl., descr. Collated and republished as 7 (1848), pl. 4, descr. foll. p. – type coll. Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia, 16 January 18??, J. Gilbert.

Amazonetta Boetticher, 1929

Amazonetta Hans von Boetticher. “Kritische Betrachtungen über Anatiden.” Anzeiger der ornithologischen Gesellschaft Bayerns, Bd. 2, no. 1 (1929), 12 (text), 15 (descr.).

Amazonetta brasiliensis Brazilian Teal (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas brasiliensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas brasiliensis.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 517 – type loc. Brasilia [Brazil].

A. b. brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789)

A. b. ipecutiri (Vieillot, 1816)

Anas ipecutiri Louis-Pierre Vieillot. “Le canard ipécutiri, Anas ipecutiri, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. New ed. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 120–121 – type loc. Paraguay.

Callonetta Delacour, 1936

Callonetta J. Delacour. “Note sur la classification des anatidés.” L’Oiseau et la Revue francaise d’ornithologie, n.s., 6, no. 3 (1936), 369.

Callonetta leucophrys Ringed Teal (Vieillot, 1816)

Anas leucophrys Louis-Pierre Vieillot. “Le canard à sourcils blancs, Anas leucophrys, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle, appliquée aux arts, à l’agriculture, à l’économie rurale et domestique, à la médecine, etc., by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. New ed. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 156–157 – type loc. Paraguay.

Lophonetta Riley, 1914

Lophonetta J. H. Riley. “Notes on Anas cristata Gmelin.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 27, no. 22 (1914), 100.

Lophonetta specularioides Crested Duck (King, 1828)

Anas specularioides Phillip Parker King. “Extracts from a Letter Addressed by Capt. Phillip Parker King, R.N., F.R.S. and L.S., to N. A. Vigors, Esq., on the Animals of the Straits of Magellan.” Zoological Journal 4, no. 13 (1828), 98–99 – type coll. Straits of Magellan, between May 1826 and July 1827, P. P. King.

L. s. alticola (Ménégaux, 1909)

Anas cristata alticola A. Menegaux [A. Ménégaux]. “Étude d’une collection d’oiseaux provenant des hauts plateaux de la Bolivie et du Pérou méridional.” Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris, 10th ser., 1, no. 4–6 (1909), 224 – type coll. lac Poopo [Lake Poopó], Bolivia, 11 June 1903, G. de Créqui-Montfort and E. Sénéchal de la Grange Expedition to South America.

L. s. specularioides (King, 1828)

Speculanas Boetticher, 1929

Speculanas Hans von Boetticher. “Kritische Betrachtungen über Anatiden.” Anzeiger der ornithologischen Gesellschaft Bayerns, Bd. 2, no. 1 (1929), 14 (text), 15 (descr.).

Speculanas specularis Bronze-winged Duck (King, 1828)

Anas specularioides Phillip Parker King. “Extracts from a Letter Addressed by Capt. Phillip Parker King, R.N., F.R.S. and L.S., to N. A. Vigors, Esq., on the Animals of the Straits of Magellan.” Zoological Journal 4, no. 13 (1828), 98 – type coll. Straits of Magellan, between May 1826 and July 1827, P. P. King.

Sibirionetta Boetticher, 1929

Sibirionetta Hans von Boetticher. “Kritische Betrachtungen über Anatiden.” Anzeiger der ornithologischen Gesellschaft Bayerns, Bd. 2, no. 1 (1929), 14 (text), 15 (descr.).

Sibirionetta formosa Baikal Teal (Georgi, 1775)

Anas formosa Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775, 168–169.

Spatula Boie, 1822

Spatula F. Boie. “Ueber Classification, insonderheit der europäischen Vögel.” Isis von Oken, Jg. 1822, Heft 5 (1822), 564.

Spatula querquedula Garganey (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Querquedula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 127 – type loc. Europæ aquis dulcibus [inland waters of Europe].

Spatula hottentota Hottentot Teal (Eyton, 1838)

Querquedula hottentota T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 129 – type coll. near Orange River, western coast of South Africa, A. Smith.

Spatula puna Puna Teal (Tschudi, 1844)

Anas Puna J. J. de Tschudi [J. J. von Tschudi]. “Avium conspectus, quae in Republica Peruana reperiuntur et pleraeque observatae vel collectae sunt in itinere.” Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 10, Bd. 1 (1844), 315–316 – type loc. Peru.

Spatula versicolor Silver Teal (Vieillot, 1816)

Anas versicolor Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard a bec versicolor, Anas versicolor, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 109 – type loc. Paraguay.

S. v. versicolor (Vieillot, 1816)

S. v. fretensis (King, 1831)

Anas fretensis P. P. King. “Characters of New Genera and Species of Birds from the Straits of Magellan.” Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt 1, no. 1 (1831), 15–16 – type loc. Straits of Magellan, Chile, P. P. King.

Spatula platalea Red Shoveler (Vieillot, 1816)

Anas platalea Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard spatule, Anas platalea, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 157 – type loc. South America, especially Paraguay.

Spatula cyanoptera Cinnamon Teal (Vieillot, 1816)

Anas cyanoptera Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard aux ailes bleues, Anas cyanoptera, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 104–105 – type loc. Río de la Plata. Argentina/Uruguay and Buenos Aires, Argentina.

S. c. septentrionalium (Snyder and Lumsden, 1951)

Anas cyanoptera septentrionalium L. L. Snyder and H. G. Lumsden. “Variation in Anas cyanoptera.” Occasional Papers of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, no. 10 (1951), 16–17 _ type coll. Jensen, UT, USA, 29 April 1935, Albert C. Lloyd.

S. c. tropica (Snyder and Lumsden, 1951)

Anas cyanoptera tropicus L. L. Snyder and H. G. Lumsden. “Variation in Anas cyanoptera.” Occasional Papers of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, no. 10 (1951), 16 – type coll. Valle de Vijes, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, 9 March 1950, H. G. Lumsden.

S. c. borreroi (Snyder and Lumsden, 1951)

Anas cyanoptera borreroi L. L. Snyder and H. G. Lumsden. “Variation in Anas cyanoptera.” Occasional Papers of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, no. 10 (1951), 15–16 – type coll. Sibundoy, Putumayo Department, Colombia, 23 February 1950, H. G. Lumsden.

S. c. orinoma (Oberholser, 1906)

Querquedula orinomus Harry C. Oberholser. “Description of a New Querquedula.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 19, no. 21 (1906), 93–94 – type coll. Puna [Puno?], Lake Titicaca, Peru, A. J. Norris.

S. c. cyanoptera (Vieillot, 1816)

Spatula discors Blue-winged Teal (Linnaeus, 1766)

Anas discors Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 205 – type loc. America septentrionali [Nprthern America].

Spatula smithii Cape Shoveler Hartert, 1891

Spatula smithii Ernst Hartert. Katalog der Vogelsammlung in Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt am Main: Gebrüder Knauer, 231n.

Spatula rhynchotis Australasian Shoveler (Latham, 1801)

Anas Rhynchotis Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Supplementum indicis ornithologici, sive systematis ornithologiaæ. Londini [London]: G. Leigh, J. et S. Sotheby, 1801, 70 – type loc. Nova Hollandia [Australia].

Spatula clypeata Northern Shoveler (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas clypeata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124–125 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Mareca Stephens, 1824

Mareca J. F. StephensMareca. Wigeon.” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 130.

Mareca strepera Gadwall (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas strepera Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Europæ aquis dulcibus [inland waters of Europe].

M. s. strepera (Linnaeus, 1758)

M. s. couesi† (Streets, 1876)

Chaulelasmus couesi Thomas H. Streets. “Description of a New Duck from Washington Island.” Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 1, no. 2 (1876), 46–47 – type coll. Washington Island [Teraina], Fanning Group [Line Islands], Kiribati, January 1874, T. H. Streets.

Mareca falcata Falcated Duck (Georgi, 1775)

Anas falcata Joh. Gottl. Georgi. Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich im Jahre 1772. Vol. 1 of Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich in den Jahren 1772, 1773 und 1774. St. Peterburg: Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften, 1775, 167 – type loc. Baikal, Russia.

Mareca penelope Eurasian Wigeon (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Penelope Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europæ maritimis & paludibus [maritime and waterlogged Europe].

Mareca sibilatrix Chiloe Wigeon (Poeppig, 1829)

Anas sibilarix E. F. Pöppig. “Schreiben des jezt in Chile reisenden Hrn.” Notizen aus dem Gebiete der Natur- und Heilkunde, 25, no. 1, Kro. 529 (1829), col. 10 – type loc. Chile.

Mareca americana American Wigeon (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas americana Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas americana.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 526 – type loc. America.

Mareca marecula Amsterdam Wigeon† (Olson and Jouventin, 1996)

Anas marecula Storrs L. Olson and Pierre Jouventin. “A New Species of Small Flightless Duck from Amsterdam Island, Southern Indian Ocean (Anatidae: Anas).” Condor 98, no. 1 (1996), 1 (name), 4–6 (descr.), fig. 1–8 – type coll. (fossils) Amsterdam Island [Île Amsterdam], French Southern and Antarctic Lands, November 1983, J. Martinez.

Anas Linnaeus, 1758

Anas Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 122.

Anas sparsa African Black Duck Eyton, 1838

Anas sparsa T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 142 – type loc. Southern Africa.

A. s. leucostigma Rüppell, 1845

Anas leucostygma Eduard Rüppell. Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Nord-Ost-Afrika’s, nebst Abbildung und Beschreibung von fünfzig Theils unbekannten, Theils noch nicht bildlich dargestellten Arten. Frankfurt a. M. [Frankfurt am Main]: S. Schmerber’schen Buchhandlung, 1845, 130–132, pl. 48 – type loc. Abyssinia [Ethiopia].

A. s. sparsa Eyton, 1838

Anas undulata Yellow-billed Duck Dubois, 1838

Anas undulata C. F. Dubois. Ornithologische Gallerie, oder Abbildungenaller bekannten Vögel. Aachen: Mayer, 1838, Heft 15, 119. Collated and republished 1839, 119.

A. u. ruppelli Blyth, 1855

Anas Rüppelli E. Blyth. “Report of Curator, Zoological Department, for April Meeting, 1855.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 24, no. 3 (1855), 265 – type loc. Central Africa.

A. u. undulata Dubois, 1838

Anas melleri Meller’s Duck Sclater, 1865

Anas melleri P. L. Sclater. “Description of a New Species of Duck from Madagascar.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1864, “1864”, no. 31 (1865), 487, pl. 34 – type coll. Analamazotra [Analamazoatra], Madagascar, late July-early August 1862, Charles Meller.

Anas superciliosa Pacific Black Duck Gmelin, 1789

Anas superciliosa Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas superciliosa.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 537 – type loc. Nova Seelandia [New Zealand].

A. s. superciliosa Gmelin, 1789

A. s. pelewensis Hartlaub and Finsch, 1872

Anas superciliosa var. pelewensis G. Hartlaub and O. Finsch. “On a Fourth Collection of Birds from the Pelew and Mackenzie Islands.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1872, no. 7 (1872), 108 – type coll. Pelew Islands [Palau], Cpt. Heinsohn.

Anas laysanensis Laysan Duck Rothschild, 1892

Anas laysanensis Walter Rothschild. “Anas laysanensis, sp. n.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 1, no. 4 (1892), 17 – type coll. Island of Laysan, HI, USA, Henry Palmer.

Anas wyvilliana Hawaiian Duck Sclater, 1878

Anas wyvilliana P. L. Sclater. “Reports on the Collections of Birds Made during the Voyage of the H.M.S. ‘Challenger’. No. VIII: On the Birds of the Sandwich Islands.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1878, no. 22 (1878), 350–351 – type coll. Hilo Bay, Sandwich Islands [Hawai’i], HI, USA, 14–19 August 1875, Challenger Expedition.

Anas luzonica Philippine Duck Fraser, 1839

Anas Luzonica L. Frazer. “Description sof Two New Species of Birds from the Island of Luzon (Phœnicophaus Cumingi and Anas Luzonica).” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 7, no. 79 (1839), 112–113 – type coll. Luzon, Philippines, H. Cuming.

Anas poecilorhyncha Indian Spot-billed Duck Forster, 1781

Anas poecilorhyncha Johann Reinhold Forster. Indische Zoologie oder systematische Beschreibungen seltener und unbekannter Thiere aus Indien…. Halle: Johann Jacob Gebauer, 1781, 23–24, pl. 13, fig. 1 – type loc. Ceylon [Sri Lanka].

A. p. poecilorhyncha Forster, 1781

A. p. haringtoni (Oates, 1907)

Polionetta haringtoni Eugene W. Oates. “On a New Species of Grey Duck (Polionetta haringtoni) from Burma.” Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 17, no. 3 (1907), 558 – type loc. Irrawaddy [Ayeyarwady River], Myanmar.

Anas zonorhyncha Eastern Spot-billed Duck Swinhoe, 1866

Anas zonorhyncha Robert Swinhoe. “Ornithological Notes from Formosa.” Ibis, n.s., 2, no. 8 (1866), 394 – type loc. Ningpo [Ningbo], Zhejiang, China.

Anas platyrhynchos Mallard Linnaeus, 1758

Anas platyrhynchos Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

A. p. platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758

A. p. conboschas Brehm, 1831

Anas conboschas Christian Ludwig Brehm Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands…. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 865 –type loc. Greenland, Denmark.

Anas fulvigula Mottled Duck Ridgway, 1874

Anas obscura var. fulvigula Robert Ridgway. “Notes upon American Water Birds.” American Naturalist 8, no. 2 (1874), 111 – type coll. St. John’s River, FL, USA, 1872, C. J. Maynard.

A. f. fulvigula Ridgway, 1874

A. f. maculosa Sennett, 1889

Anas maculosa George B. Sennett. “A New Species of Duck from Texas.” Auk 6, no. 3 (1889), 263–264 – type coll. Nuesces Bay [Neuces Bay], TX, USA, 4 April 1889, J. A. Singley.

Anas rubripes American Black Duck Brewster, 1902

Anas obscura rubripes William Brewster. “An Undescribed Form of the Black Duck (Anas obscura).” Auk 19, no. 2 (1902), 184–185 – type coll. Lake Umbagog, NH, USA, 9 October 1889, W. Brewster.

Anas diazi Mexican Duck Ridgway, 1886

Anas diazi Robert Ridgway. “Preliminary Descriptions of Some New Species of Birds from Southern Mexico, in the Collection of the Mexican Geographical and Exploring Commission.” Auk 3, no. 3 (1886), 332 – type coll. Laguna del Rosario, Tlaxcala, Mexico, October 1884, Geographical and Exploring Commission.

Anas capensis Cape Teal Gmelin, 1789

Anas capensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas capensis.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 527 – type loc. Caput bonæ spei [Cape of Good Hope], South Africa.

Anas bahamensis White-cheeked Pintail Linnaeus, 1758

Anas bahamensis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. Bahama [Bahamas].

A. b. bahamensis Linnaeus, 1758

A. b. rubrirostris Vieillot, 1816

Anas rubrirostris Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard à bex rouge et plombé, Anas rubrirostris, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 108 – type loc. Buenos-Ayres [Buenos Aires], Argentina.

A. b. galapagensis (Ridgway, 1890)

Pœcilonetta galapagensis Robert Ridgway. “Scientific Results of Explorations by the U.S. Fish Commission Steamer Albatross. No. 1: Birds Collected on the Galapagos Islands in 1888.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 12 (“1889”), no. 767 (1890), 115-116 – type coll. Charles Island [Floreana Island], Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, 8 April 1888, USS Albatross naturalists.

Anas erythrorhyncha Red-billed Teal Gmelin, 1789

Anas erythrorhyncha Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas erythrorhyncha.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 517 – type loc. Caput bonæ spei [Cape of Good Hope], South Africa.

Anas georgica Yellow-billed Pintail Gmelin, 1789

Anas georgica Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas georgica.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 516 – type loc. Georgia australi Americæ [Georgia, USA].

A. g. niceforoi† Wetmore and Borrero, 1946

Anas niceforoi Alexander Wetmore and José I. Borrero. “A New Species of Duck from Central Colombia.” Caldasia 4, no. 16 (1946), 68–70 – type coll. Laguna de Tota [Lake Tota], Boyacá, Colombia, 31 August 1945, José I. Borrero.

A. g. spinicauda Vieillot, 1816

Anas spinicauda Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard a queue pointue, Anas spinicauda, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 135 – type loc. Buenos-Ayres [Buenos Aires], Argentina.

A. g. georgica Gmelin, 1789

Anas eatoni Eaton’s Pintail (Sharpe, 1875)

Querquedula eatoni R. Bowdler Sharpe. “Description of an Apparently New Species of Teal from Kerguelen’s Island.” Ibis, 3rd ser., 5, no. 19 (1875), 328–329 – type coll. Kerguelen’s Island [Grand Terre], Kerguelen Islands, France, 1874(?), A. E. Eaton.

A. e. drygalskii Reichenow, 1904

Anas drygalskii Ant. Reichenow. “Neue Arten des Südpolargebiets.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 12, no. 3 (1904), 47 – type coll. Crozet Islands, 25 December 1901, German South Polar Expedition.

A. e. eatoni (Sharpe, 1875)

Anas acuta Northern Pintail Linnaeus, 1758

Anas acuta Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Anas crecca Eurasian Teal Linnaeus, 1758

Anas Crecca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126–127 – type loc. Europæ aquis dulcibus [inland waters of Europe].

Anas carolinensis Green-winged Teal Gmelin, 1789

Anas carolinensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas georgica.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 533 – type loc. Americæ [North America].

Anas flavirostris Yellow-billed Teal Vieillot, 1816

Anas flavirostris Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard a bec jaune et noir, Anas flavirostris, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 107–108 – Buenos-Ayres [Buenos Aires], Argentina.

A. f. oxyptera Meyen, 1834

Anas oxyptera F. J. F. Meyen. “Beiträge zur Zoologie, gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde. Abh. 4. Vögel.” Verhandlungen der kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Akademie der Naturforscher, 16, Bd. 8, Suppl. 1, 121, pl. 26 – type loc. South Peru.

A. f. flavirostris Vieillot, 1816

Anas andium Andean Teal (Sclater and Salvin, 1873)

Querquedula andium Philippo Lutley Sclater [Philip Lutley Sclater] and Osberto Salvin [Osbert Salvin]. Nomenclator avium neotropicalium…. Londini [London]: published by the authors, 1873, 129 (list), 162 (descr.) – type coll. between Riobamba and Mocha, Æquatoria [Ecuador], February–April 1859, L. Fraser.

A. a. altipetens (Conover, 1941)

Nettion andium altipetens H. B. Conover. “A New Race of Nettion andium from Venezuela.” Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 54, no. 28 (1941), 143–144 – type coll. Paramo San Antonio, Culata Mountains, Merida, Venezuela, 24 March 1920, H. B. Conover.

A. a. andium (Sclater and Salvin, 1873)

Anas gibberifrons Sunda Teal Müller, 1842

Anas (Mareca) gibberifrons Salomon Müller. Land- en volkenkunde. In Verhandelingen over de natuurlijke geschiedenis der Nederlandsche overzeesche bezittingen, by C. J. Temminck, edited by J. A. Susanna. Leiden: S. and J. Luchtmans and C. C. van der Hoek, 1842, no. 5, 159n. Collated and reprinted 1847, 159n.

Anas albogularis Andaman Teal (Hume, 1873)

Mareca albogularis A. O. Hume. “Mareca albogularis Sp. Nov.” Stray Feathers 1, no. 2–4, 303–304 – type coll. Andaman Islands, India, December 1872, W. R. Davison.

Anas theodori Mascarene Teal† Newton and Gadow, 1893

Anas theodori Edward Newton and Hans Gadow. “On Additional Bones of the Dodo and Other Extinct Birds of Mauritius Obtained by Mr. Théodore Sauzier.” Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 13, pt 7, no. 1 (1893), 282 (list), 291 (descr.), pl. 34, fig. 11–17 – type loc. Mauritius.

Anas gracilis Grey Teal Buller, 1869

Anas gracilis Walter Buller. “On Some New Species of New Zealand Birds.” Ibis, n.s., 5, no. 17 (1869), 41–42 – type coll. Orona Stream [Oroua River], Wellington Province [Wellington Region/Manawatū-Whanganui], New Zealand, W. Buller.

A. g. gracilis Buller, 1869

A. g. remissa† Ripley, 1942

Anas castanea remissa S. Dillon Ripley. “A Review of the Species Anas castanea.” Auk 59, no. 1 (1942), 94 – type coll. Rennell Island, Solomon Islands, 4 September 1928, Hannibal Hamlin.

Anas castanea Chestnut Teal (Eyton, 1838)

Mareca castanea T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 119 – type loc. New Holland [Australia].

Anas bernieri Bernier’s Teal (Hartlaub, 1860)

Querquedula Bernieri G. Hartlaub. “Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Madagascars.” Journal für Ornithologie 8, no. 45 (1860), 173–174 – type loc. Madagascar.

Anas chlorotis Brown Teal Gray, 1845

Anas chlorotis George Robert Gray. Birds. Pt 8 of The Zoology of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Erebus and Terror…, edited by John Richardson and John Edward Gray. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1845, 15, pl. 20. Collated and republished as “Birds.” In The Zoology of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Erebus and Terror…, edited by John Richardson and John Edward Gray. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1875, 15, pl. 20 – type loc. New Zealand.

Anas aucklandica Auckland Teal (Gray, 1844)

Nesonetta aucklandica George Robert Gray. The Genera of Birds: Comprising Their Generic Characters, a Notice of the Habits of the Genus, and an Extensive List of Species Referred to Their Several Genera. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844, pt 5. Collated and republ. as Vol. 3, 1849, [627], pl. [169], fig. 4 – Auckland Islands, New Zealand.

Anas nesiotis Campbell Teal (Fleming, 1935)

Xenonetta nesiotis J. H. Fleming. “A New Genus and Species of Flightless Duck from Campbell Island.” Occasional Papers of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, no. 1 (1935), 1–2 – type coll. Campbell Island, New Zealand, 1886, John Fairchild.

Marmaronetta Reichenbach, 1853

Marmaronetta L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 284, 51b, Novit. 21, fig. 2341–42 (insert?), pl. 335, 51c, Novit. 72, fig. 2652 (insert?).

Marmaronetta angustirostris Marbled Duck (Ménétries, 1832)

Anas angustirostris E. Ménétries. Catalogue raisonné des objets de zoologie. Recueillis dans un voyage au Caucase et jusqu’aux frontières actuelles de la Perse. St.-Pétersbourg [Saint Petersburg]: Académie impériale des sciences, 1832, 58 – type loc. near Lenkoran [Lankaran], Persia [Iran].

Rhodonessa Reichenbach, 1853

Rhodonessa L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 49, Suppl. 21, fig. 919 (insert?).

Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Pink-headed Duck† (Latham, 1790)

Anas caryophyllacea Joannis Latham [John Latham]. Index ornithologicus; sive, Systema ornithologiae…. Londini [London]: Sumptibus authoris, 1790, 2: 866 – type loc. India.

Netta Kaup, 1829

Netta Jakob Kaup. Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt. Darmstadt/Leipzig: Carl Wilhelm Leske, 1829, 1: 102.

Netta rufina Red-crested Pochard (Pallas, 1773)

Anas rufina P.S. Pallas. “Anhang zum zweiten Theil. Descriptiones animalium.” In Reise durch verschiedene Theile des Rußischen Reichs im 1771sten Jahr. Pt 2, Buch 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773, 713. And Physicalische Reise durch einige Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs im 1770stes Jahr. Pt 2 of Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Rußischen Reichs. St. Petersburg: Kaiserlichen Academie der Wissenschaften, 1773, 237 (narr.) – type coll. Mari Caspio [Caspian Sea], Summer 1770, Nicetas Sokolof.

Netta peposaca Rosy-billed Pochard (Vieillot, 1816)

Anas peposaca Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Canard peposaca, Anas peposaca, Vieill.” In Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1816, 5: 132 – type loc. Paraguay and Buenos-Ayres [Buenos Aires], Argentina.

Netta erythrophthalma Southern Pochard (Wied-Neuwied, 1833)

Anas erythrophthalma Maximilian zu Wied [Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied]. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien. Weimar: Verlage des Landes-Industrie-Comptoirs, 1833, Bd. 4, Abt. 2, 929–932 – type coll. Lagoa do Braço, Villa de Belmonte [Belmonte?], November 1816(?), Bahia, Brazil, hunters for Wied-Neuwied.

N. e. brunnea (Eyton, 1838)

Nyroca brunnea T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 161–162 – type loc. Southern Africa.

N. e. erythrophthalma (Wied-Neuwied, 1833)

Aythya Boie, 1822

Aythya F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822, 308 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Aythya valisineria Canvasback (Wilson, 1814)

Anas valisineria Alexander Wilson. American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United States. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1814, 8: 103, pl. 70, fig. 5 – type loc. Hudson River, Delaware River, rivers flowing into Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

Aythya americana Redhead (Eyton, 1838)

Fuligula americana T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 155–156 – type loc. North America.

Aythya ferina Common Pochard (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas ferina Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Aythya australis Hardhead (Eyton, 1838)

Nyroca australis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 160 – type loc. Australia.

Aythya innotata Madagascan Pochard (Salvadori, 1894)

Nyroca innotata T. Salvadori. “Anas oustelati and Nyroca innotata, spp. nn.” Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 4, no. 20 (1894), 2. Republished in Ibis, 7th ser., 1, no. 1 (1875), 136 – type loc. Madagascar.

Aythya baeri Baer’s Pochard (Radde, 1863)

Anas (Fuligula) Baeri Gustav Radde. Die Festlands-Ornis des Südöstlichen Sibiriens. Vol. 2 of Reisen im Süden von Ost-Sibirien in den Jahren 1855-1859 incl. St. Petersburg: W. Besobrasoff, 1863, 376 – type coll. along the river Udin and Amur, Russia, 18 April 1858, G. Radde.

Aythya nyroca Ferruginous Duck (Güldenstädt, 1770)

Anas Nyroca A. I. Gueldenstaedt [J. A. Güldenstädt]. “Anas Nyroca.” Novi commentarii Academiae scientiarum imperialis Petropolitanae 14, pt 1 (1770), 403–407 – type loc. River Don basin 54–55° N.

Aythya novaeseelandiae New Zealand Scaup (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas novæ Seelandiæ Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas novæ Seelandiæ.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 541 – type loc. nova Seelandia [New Zealand].

Aythya collaris Ring-necked Duck (Donovan, 1809)

Anas Collaris E. Donovan. The Natural History of British birds; or, A Selection of the Most Rare, Beautiful and Interesting Birds Which Inhabit This Country…. London: published by author, and F. C. and J. Rivington, 1809, 6: pl. 147, descr. on following pp. – type loc. Lincolnshire, U.K.

Aythya fuligula Tufted Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Fuligula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 128 – type loc. Europæ maritimis [maritime Europe].

Aythya marila Greater Scaup (Linnaeus, 1761)

Anas marila Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Fauna svecica…. 2nd edn. Stockholmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1761, 39 – type loc. Lapponia [Sápmi].

A. m. marila (Linnaeus, 1761)

A. m. nearctica Stejneger, 1885

Aythya marila nearctica Leonhard Stejneger. “Results of Ornithological Explorations in the Commander Islands and in Kamtschatka.” Bulletin of the United States National Museum, no. 29 (1885), 161–162 – type loc. Nearctic region.

Aythya affinis Lesser Scaup (Eyton, 1838)

Fuligula affinis T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 157 – type loc. North America.

Polysticta Eyton, 1836

Polysticta T. C. Eyton. “A Catalogue of British Birds.” In A History of the Rarer British Birds. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, and Houlston and Son, 1836, 58.

Polysticta stelleri Steller’s Eider (Pallas, 1769)

Anas Stelleri Petri S. Pallas [Peter S. Pallas]. Spicilegia zoologica…. Berolini [Berlin]: Gottl. August. Lange, 1769, 1, fasc. 6, 35–36, pl. 5 – type coll. Kamchatka, Russia, G. W. Steller.

Somateria Leach, 1819

Somateria W. E. Leach. “Genus Somateria, Leach (Eider).” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819, 48.

Somateria fischeri Spectacled Eider (Brandt, 1847)

Fuligula (Lampronetta) Fischeri Joannes Fridericus Brandt [Johann Friedrich von Brandt]. Fulligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri. Novam avium Rossaricum speciem…. Petropoli [Saint Petersburg]: Typis Academiae caesareae scientiarum, 1847, 10 (text), 14–19 (descr.), fig. 1–4. Republished as “Fulligulam (Lampronettam) Fischeri. Novam avium Rossaricum speciem….” Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 6th ser., 8, pt 2: Sciences naturelles, 6 (1849), 6 (narr.), 10–15, fig. 1–4 – type loc. insula Steffens [St. Michael Island], Norton Sound, AL, U.S.

Somateria spectabilis King Eider (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas spectabilis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Canada and Svecia [Sweden].

Somateria mollissima Common Eider (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas mollissima Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. Europa boreali, pelagica [northern, pelagic Europe].

S. m. v-nigrum Bonaparte and Gray, 1855

Somateria v. nigrum Ch. Bonaparte and G. R. Gray. “M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente, au nom de M. Gray un catalogue des oiseaux du Musée britannique, et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il a observées récemment en Angleterre et en Écosse.” Also indexed as
“M. le Prince Ch. Bonaparte présente un exemplaire du catalogue des genres et sous-genres d’oiseaux contenus dans le Musée britannique, par M. J.-Edw. Gray [sic] et indique à cette occasion les principales espèces nouvelles qu’il vient d’observer dans son récent voyage en Écosse et en Angleterre.” Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences 41 (1855), 661 – type loc. most northern parts of America.

S. m. borealis (Brehm, 1824)

Platypus borealis Christian Ludwig Brehm. Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte aller europäischen Vögel. Jena: August Schmid, 1824, pt 2, 813–814 – type loc. Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Greenland, Iceland.

S. m. sedentaria Snyder, 1941

Somateria mollissima sedentaria L. L. Snyder. “On the Hudson Bay Eider.” Occasional Papers of the Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, no. 6 (1941), 3 – type coll. Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, 8 July 1932, Arthur C. Twomey.

S. m. dresseri Sharpe, 1871

Somateria dresseri R. B. Sharpe. “On the American Eider Duck.” Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th ser., 8, no. 43 (1871), 51–53, fig. 1.

S. m. faeroeensis Brehm, 1831

Somateria Faeroeensis Christian Ludwig Brehm Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands…. Ilmenau: Bernh. Friedr. Voigt, 1831, 893–894 – type loc. Faroe Islands.

S. m. mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758)

Histrionicus Lesson, 1828

histrionicus R. P. Lesson. Manuel d’ornithologie, ou Description des genres et des principales espèces d’oiseaux. Paris: Roret, 1828, 2: 415.

Histrionicus histrionicus Harlequin Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas histrionica Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 127 – type loc. America.

Camptorhynchus† Bonaparte, 1838

Camptorhynchus Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. Lodnon: John Van Voorst, 1838, 58.

Camptorhynchus labradorius Labrador Duck† (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas labradoria Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas labradoria.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 537 – type loc. America boreali [North America].

Melanitta Boie, 1822

Melanitta F. Boie. Tagebuch gehalten auf einer Reise durch Norwegen im Jahre 1817, edited by H. Boie. Schleswig: Königliches Taubstummen Institut, 1822, 7 (narr.), 351 (syn.).

Melanitta perspicillata Surf Scoter (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas perspicillata Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Canada.

Melanitta fusca Velvet Scoter (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas fusca Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. oceano Europæo [oceanic Europe].

Melanitta deglandi White-winged Scoter (Bonaparte, 1850)

Oïdemia deglandi Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Revue critique de l’Ornithologie Européenne de M. le docteur Degland (de Lille). Bruxelles [Brussels]: V. Wouters, 1850, 108 – type loc. America.

Melanitta stejnegeri Stejneger’s Scoter (Ridgway, 1887)

Oidemia stejnegeri Robert Ridgway. A Manual of North American Birds. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1887, 112 – type coll. Kamtschatka [Kamchatka], Russia, 1882, L. Stejneger.

Melanitta nigra Common Scoter (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas nigra Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 123 – type loc. Lapponia [Sapmi], Anglia [Great Britain].

Melanitta americana Black Scoter (Swainson, 1832)

Oidemia Americana William Swainson. “Oidemia Americana (Swainson.) American Scoter.” In The Birds. Pt 2 of Fauna boreali-americana; or, The Zoology of the Northern Parts of British America…, by William Swainson and John Richardson. London: John Murray, 1832 (“1831”), 450–451 – type loc. Hudson’s Bay [Hudson Bay], Canada.

Clangula Leach, 1819

Clangula W. E. Leach. “Genus Clangula, Gessner (Garrot).” In A Voyage of Discovery, Made under the Orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty’s Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin’s Bay, and Inquiring into thxe Probability of a North-west Passage, by John Ross. London: John Murray, 1819, 48.

Clangula hyemalis Long-tailed Duck (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas hyemalis Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 126 – type loc. Europa and America arctica [arctic Europe and America].

Bucephala Baird, 1858

Bucephala Spencer F. Baird. Birds. With the co-operation of John Cassin and George N. Lawrence. Vol. 9, pt 2, General Report upon the Zoology of the Several Pacific Railroad Routes, of Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to Ascertain the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean…, House of Representatives Report no. 91 (1858), xxiii (list), 795 (descr.).

Bucephala albeola Bufflehead (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Albeola Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 124 – type loc. America.

Bucephala clangula Common Goldeneye (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Clangula Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 125 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

B. c. clangula (Linnaeus, 1758)

B. c. americana (Bonaparte, 1838)

Clangula Americana Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America. Lodnon: John Van Voorst, 1838, 58 – type loc. America.

Bucephala islandica Barrow’s Goldeneye (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas islandica Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas islandica.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 541 – type loc. Islandia.

Mergellus Selby, 1840

Mergellus P. J. Selby. A Catalogue of the Generic and Sub-generic Types of the Class Aves, Birds, Arranged According to the Natural System…. Newcastle: T. and J. Hodgson, 47.

Mergellus albellus Smew (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas Albellus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Lophodytes Reichenbach, 1853

Lophodytes L. Reichenbach. “Die Vögel. The Birds. Aves. Les oiseaux – Systema avium.” In Avium systema nature. Das natürliche System der Vögel…. Dresden und Leipzig: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte (1853), 9. Die vollständigste Naturgeschichte der Schwimmvögel: Aves natatores. Oiseaux nageurs. Dresden: Expedition der volständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1848?, pl. 39, fig. 88–89.

Lophodytes cucullatus Hooded Merganser (Linnaeus, 1758)

Anas cucullatus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129 – type loc. America.

Mergus Linnaeus, 1758

Mergus Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129.

Mergus australis New Zealand Merganser† Hombron and Jacquinot, 1841

Mergus australis J. B. Hombron and H. Jacquinot. “Description de plusieurs oiseaux nouveaux ou peu connus, provenant de l’expédition autour du monde faite sur les corvettes l’Astrolabe et la Zélée.” Annales des sciences naturelles. Zoologie, 2nd ser., 16 (November 1841), 320 – type loc. l’Ile Auckland [Auckland Island], April–May 1840, J. B. Hombron and H. Jacquinot.

Mergus octosetaceus Brazilian Merganser Vieillot, 1817

Mergus octosetaceus Louis Pierre Vieillot. “Le Harle a huit brins, Mergus octosetaceus, Vieill.” Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle…, edited by Société de naturalistes et d’agriculteurs. Paris: Deterville, 1817, 14: 222 – type loc. Brazil.

Mergus merganser Common Merganser Linnaeus, 1758

Mergus Merganser Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

M. m. merganser Linnaeus, 1758

M. m. orientalis Gould, 1845

Mergus orientalis John Gould. “On Three New Species of Birds from China.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 13, no. 143–144 (1845), 1–2. Republished in Annals and Magazine of Natural History… 16, no. 102 (1845), 48 – type loc. Amoy [Xiamen], Fujian, China.

M. m. americanus Cassin, 1852

Mergus americanus John Cassin. “Descriptions of New Species of Birds, Specimens of Which Are in the Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6, no. 1 (1852), 187.

Mergus serrator Red-breasted Merganser Linnaeus, 1758

Mergus Serrator Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 129 – type loc. Europa [Europe].

Mergus squamatus Scaly-sided Merganser Gould, 1864

Mergus squamatus John Gould. “Description of a New Species of the Genus Mergus.” Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1864, no. 22 (1864), 184–185. Republished in Annals and Magazine of Natural History…, 3rd ser., 15, no. 85 (1865), 71 – type loc. China.

Heteronetta Salvadori, 1865

Heteronetta Tommaso Salvadori. “Intorno a due nuovi generi di uccelli. Nota prima.” Atti della Società italiana di scienze naturali 8 (1865), 374.

Heteronetta atricapilla Black-headed Duck (Merrem, 1841)

Anas atricapilla B. Merrem. “Ente.” In Ent–Epilogus, edited by J. G. Gruber. Sect. 1, vol. 35, of Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, edited by J. S. Ersch and J. G. Gruber. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus, 1841, 26 – type loc. Buenos-Ayres [Buenos Aires], Argentina.

Nomonyx Ridgway, 1880

Nomonyx Robert Ridgway. “Revisions of Nomenclature of Certain North American Birds.” Proceedings of the United States National Museum 3, no. 102 (1880), 15.

Nomonyx dominicus Masked Duck (Linnaeus, 1766)

Anas dominica Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 12th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1766, 1: 201 – type loc. America meridionali [South America].

Oxyura Bonaparte, 1828

Oxyura Charles Lucian Bonaparte [Charles Lucien Bonaparte]. “The Genera of North American Birds, and a Synopsis of the Species Found within the Territory of the United States: Systematically Arranged in Orders and Families.” Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New-York 2 (1828), 390.

Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy Duck (Gmelin, 1789)

Anas jamaicensis Jo. Fridr. Gmelin. “Anas jamaicensis.” In Systema naturæ…, by Caroli a Linné [Carl Linnaeus]. 13th edn., edited by Jo. Frid. Gmelin. Lugduni [Lyon]: J. B. Delamolliere, 1789, 1, pt 2, 519 – type loc. Jamaica.

Oxyura ferruginea Andean Duck (Eyton, 1838)

Erismatura ferruginea T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 170 – type loc. Chile.

O. f. ferruginea (Eyton, 1838)

O. f. andina Lehmann, 1946

Oxyura ferruginea andina F. C. Lehmann V. [F. C. Lehmann Valencia]. “Two New Birds from the Andes of Colombia.” Auk 63, no. 2 (1946), 221–222 – type coll. Lagunas del Páramo de Boca-Grande, Cundinamarca, Colombia, 14 September 1942, F. C. Lehmann V.

Oxyura vittata Lake Duck (Philippi, 1860)

Erismatura vittata R. A. Philippi. “Ueber zwei vermuthlich neue Chilenische Enten und über Fringilla barbata Mol.” Archiv für Naturgeschichte 26, Bd. 1, (1860), 26–27 – type loc. Chile.

Oxyura australis Blue-billed Duck Gould, 1837

Oxyura Australis J. Gould. “Characters of Some New Species of Birds from Swan River.” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 4 (“1836”), no. 45 (1837), 85–86. Republished in A Synopsis of the Birds of Australia, and the Adjacent Islands. London: Published by the author, 1837, pt 2, pl. [17], descr. foll. p. Collated and republished 1838, pl. [36], descr. foll. p. – type coll. Swan River, Australia, Lieutenant Breton and Captain Brete.

Oxyura maccoa Maccoa Duck (Eyton, 1838)

Erismatura maccoa T. C. Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, or Duck Tribe. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman; Shrewsbury: Eddowes, 1838, 169.

Oxyura leucocephala White-headed Duck (Scopoli, 1769)

Anas leucocephala Ioannis Antonii Scopoli [Giovanni Antonio Scopoli]. Annus I historico-naturalis. Lipsiæ [Leipzig]: Verlag von Christ. Gottlob Hilscheri, 1769, 65.

Biziura Stephens, 1824

Biziura J. F. StephensPlectropterus. Plectropterus.” In Birds. Vol. 12, pt 2 of General Zoology; or, Systematic Natural History, by George Shaw. London: J. and A. Arch; Longman, Hurst; E. Jeffery and Son; J. Mawman; Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy; J. Booth; Sherwood; G. B. Whittaker; R. Scholey; S. Bagster; Rodwell and Martin; R. Saunders; Hamilton, Adams; Simpkin and Marshall; J. Duncan; T. and J. Allman; C. Smith; G. Wightman, 1824, 221.

Biziura lobata Musk Duck (Shaw, 1796)

Anas lobata George Shaw. “Anas lobata/The Lobated Duck.” In The Naturalist’s Miscellany; or, Coloured Figures of Natural Objects, Drawn and Described Immediately from Nature, by George Shaw and Frederick P. Nodder. London: Nodder, 1796, 8, pl. 255, descr. prec. p. and foll. p – type coll. King George Sound, Australia, October 1791, Archibald Menzies.

B. l. lobata (Shaw, 1796)

B. l. menziesi Mathews, 1914

Biziura lobata menziesi G. M. Mathews. “Additions and Corrections to My List of the Birds of Australia.” Austral Avian Record 2, no. 5 (1914), 90 – type loc. New South Wales, Australia.

Upupidae

UPUPIDAE Leach, 1920

W. E. Leach. Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum. 17th edn. London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820, 68.


Upupa Linnaeus, 1758

Upupa Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 117.

Onomatopoeic: Latin upupa, Greek ἔποψ, épops.


Upupa epops Eurasian Hoopoe Linnaeus, 1758

Upupa Epops Caroli Linnæi [Carl Linnaeus]. Systema naturae…. 10th edn. Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758, 1: 117–118 – type loc. Europæ [Europe].

(Hoopoe) Onomatopoeic. Greek ἔποψ, épops = Hoopoe.

U. e. epops Linnaeus, 1758

U. e. ceylonensis Reichenbach, 1853

Upupa ceylonensis Ludovico Reichenbach [Ludwig Reichebach]. Icones ad synopsin avium, no. 11. In Handbuch der speciellen Ornithologie. Beschreibender Text zu der vollständigsten Kupfersammlung der Vögel aller Welttheile. Dresden: Expedition der Vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 223 (tab.), 320–321 (descr.), pl. 595, fig. 4036 – type loc. Ceylon [Sri Lanka].

(Ceylon Hoopoe) for Ceylon [Sri Lanka], with Latin adjectival suffix -ēnsis = of or from a place.

U. e. longirostris Jerdon, 1862

Upupa longirostris T. C. Jerdon. The Birds of India: Being a Natural History of All the Birds Known to Inhabit Continental India…. Calcutta: published by the author, 1862, 1: 393 – type loc. Burmah [Myanmar].

(Long-billed Hoopoe) Latin longirōstris = long-billed, long-beaked, from longus = long, and rōstrum = bill, beak, with adjectival suffix -is = used in compositions.

U. e. major Brehm, 1855

Upupa major Christian Ludwig Brehm. Der vollständige Vögelsang: Eine gründliche Anleitung alle europaischen Vögel…. Weimar: Verlag von Bernh. Freidr. Voigt, 78 – type coll. Egypt, 16 March 1849, A. E. Brehm (Baron von Müller‘s Second African Expedition [J. W. von Müller]).

(Greater Hoopoe) Latin major = greater.

U. e. senegalensis Swainson, 1837

Upupa senegalensis William Swainson. The Natural History of the Birds of Western Africa. Vol. 17 of The Naturalist’s Library, vol. 8 of Ornithology, edited by William Jardine. Edinburgh: W. H. Lizars, 1837, 2: 114–116 – type loc. Senegal.

(Senegal Hoopoe) for Senegal, with Latin adjectival suffix -ēnsis = of or from a place.

U. e. waibeli Reichenow, 1913

Upupa waibeli Anton Reichenow. “Upupa waibeli n. sp.” Ornithologische Monatsberichte 21, no. 1 (1913), 8 – type coll. Bamugu, German Cameroon [Cameroon?], 14 October 1911, L. Waibel (Thorbecke Expedition to Cameroon [Franz Thorbecke]).

(Waibel’s Hoopoe) for Leo Waibel, with Latin = adjectival suffix.


Upupa africana African Hoopoe Bechstein, 1811

Upupa africana Johann Matthäus Bechstein. Johann Lathams allgemeine Uebersicht der Vögel. Nürnberg: Adam Gottlieb Schneider und Weigel, 1811, Bd. 4, pt 1, 172, pl. 27 – type loc. Malimbe and Cape of Good Hope, Southern Africa.

(African Hoopoe) Latin āfricāna = African.


Upupa marginata Madagascan Hoopoe Cabanis and Heine, 1860

Upupa marginata Jean Cabanis and Ferdinand Heine. Schreivögel. Pt 2 of Museum Heineanum…. Halberstadt: R. Frantz, 1860, 127 – type loc. Madagascar.

(Marginal Hoopoe) Latin margināta = having a border or margin.

The The

Definite articles shouldn’t cause any difficulty in the English language. Unlike in German, for instance, where a plethora of definite articles is used depending on gender and case, the English language knows only one: ‘the’. Easy.

Recently, however, ‘the’ has become a bit of an annoyance in certain publications. Every now and then ‘the’ seems to be capitalized when used in relation to the Netherlands. An example:

‘Moltoni’s Warbler is already split in The Netherlands and Italy from Subalpine Warbler’.

This example is lifted from Birdwatch magazine, a UK monthly; it is common practice here. Where is this strange usage coming from? Is it the idiosyncratic behaviour of a copy editor? Maybe Birdwatch uses a Dutch person to read their copy, as I have seen ‘The Netherlands’ used by Dutch people writing in English. Or maybe, they have been reading too much of the KLM in-flight magazine Holland Herald, another culprit. What is the justification of the misuse of ‘the’?

In a word, none. Unlike The Gambia, the only country that uses ‘The’ as part of its official name, the Netherlands do not add an article to their official denomination. In fact, like country names such as France, Germany and Italy, there shouldn’t really be an article preceding it. Since it is a plural noun, a preceding article is of course de rigeur.

Elevating ‘the’ to capital status almost makes it look like it has become part of the noun. It is not. We might end up with the The Netherlands, The-Netherlands or Thenetherlands.

A thorn in the flesh.