Bushtits

The Aeghitalidae family epithet was first mentioned by L. Reichenbach in Avium systema naturale. Das natürliche System der Vögel (Dresden and Leipzig: Expedition der vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1850), pl. 62, as Aeghitalinae, where the stem originates in Aeghitalus, synonym of Remiz (from Polish remiz = Penduline Tit, first used by Feliks Paweł Jarocki in Spis ptaków w gabinecie Zoologicznym Królewsko Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu [List of birds in the Zoological Cabinet of the Royal Warsaw University] (Warsaw: Zawadzki i Węcki, 1819), 21).

Considered to be part of the Paridae family for a long time, now they are classified to be allied to Old World warblers s.l., allied families varying according to source. The IOC recognizes three genera: Aeghitalos, Leptopoecile and Psaltriparus.

Long-tailed Tit

Juv. Long-tailed Tits. Illustration: J. Gould & W. Hart, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 29.

Aegithalos

Aegithalos = tit(mouse) – from Greek αἰγιθαλός, aigithalós = tit(mouse), mentioned by Aristotle, in Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, vol. 4 of The Works of Aristotle, eds. J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 592b17–22, with specific reference to ὀρεινὸς, oreinos = hill or mountain tit(mouse) = Long-tailed Tit (oreinos is translated as orinus in History of Animals, In Ten Books, trans. Richard Cresswell (London: Bell, 1897), 202) – genus mentioned by Jean Hermann (as Johannis Hermann) in Observationes zoologicae quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur, ed. Frédéric-Louis Hammer (as Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer) (Argentorati [Strasbourg]: Koenig, 1804), 214, ascribed to Pipra ? europaea, which, according to David W. Snow in ‘Family Aegithalidae’, in Raymond A. Paynter Jr. (ed.), Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters (Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1967), vol. 12, 52, is a synonym of Parus caudatus of Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 190.

  • Long-tailed TitAegithalos caudatus = Long-tailed Tit – from Latin cauda = tail, and Latin -ātus = possessive adjectival suffix – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 190, as Parus caudatus, where Parus = tit(mouse), used by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 189;
    • (HBWAlive: Northern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. caudatus = the nominate form;
    • A. c. rosaceus = Rosy Tit – from Latin rosa = rose, and Latin‎ -āceus = resembling, used as relational adjectival suffix – brief description in note sent to the 404th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 8 December 1937 by G.M. Mathews, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 58/409 (1938), 44 (indexed as ‘Note on the Name of the British Long-tailed Tit (Ægithalus caudatus rosaceus)’), the main reason of the note, however, was a change of name from Mecistura rosea Rose-mufflin (quoted by Mathews as Rose Muffler) assigned by Edward Blyth in Gilbert White, The Natural History of Selborne, with Its Antiquities, Naturalist’s Calendar, &c., ed. Edward Blyth (London: Orr & Smith, 1836), 111n (used as a synonym of Linnaeus’s Parus caudatus), where Mecistura = longest tail (from Greek μῆκος, mêkos = long, Greek adjectival suffix (interfix)‎ -ρός, -rós, and Greek ουρά, ourá = tail), listed by W.E. Leach in Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Preserved in the British Museum: With Their Localities and Authorities (London: Taylor, 1816), 17, as Mecistura vagans Wandering Tailpie (where vagans = wandering, from Latin vagāns = rambling), a nomen nudum;
    • Long-tailed Tit

      Long-tailed Tits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 28.
    • (HBWAlive: Western Long-tailed Tit) A. c. europaeus = European Tit – for Europe, from Latin Eurōpa, from Greek Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē, and Latin -eus = adjectival suffix – Jean Hermann (as Johannis Hermann) in Observationes zoologicae quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur, ed. Frédéric-Louis Hammer (as Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer) (Argentorati [Strasbourg]: Koenig, 1804), 214, as Pipra ? europaea;
    • A. c. aremoricus = Armorican Tit – for Armorica (present-day Brittany), from (reconstructed) Gaulish Aremorika = place by the sea – type specimen collected by Hugh Whistler near Loudéac (as Loudiac), 21 October 1928, description sent to the 326th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, held in London, 13 March 1929, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 49/331 (1929), 87–88 (indexed as ‘Description of a New Race of Long-tailed Tit (Ægithalos caudatus aremoricus)’);
    • A. c. taiti = Tait’s Tit – for William C. Tait, ornithologist of Portugal – type specimen collected near Coimbra, Portugal, October 1886, described by Collingwood Ingram in ‘Description of a New Form of Long-tailed Tit’, Zoologist, 4th ser., 17/862 (1913), 137, as Ægithalus caudatus taiti;
    • A. c. irbii = Irby’s Tit – for Howard Irby – collected by Irby in Andalusia, ‘near Gibraltar’, Spain, described by R.B. Sharpe and H.E. Dresser in a paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, 18 April 1871, entitled ‘On a New Species of Long-tailed Titmouse from Southern Europe’, published in Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1871, 1871/20, 312–313, as Acredula irbii, where Acredula is of disputed origin, likely from Latin ācer = sharp, in reference to the shrill calls, first used as a genus name by Carl Ludwig Koch (as Karl Ludwig Koch) in System der baierischen Zoologie. Die Säugthiere und Vögel Baierns. Zum Gebrauch als Taschenbuch (Nürnberg: Steinische Buchhandlung, 1816), 199–200, without etymology;
    • A. c. italiae = Italian Tit – for Italy – type specimen collected by Odoardo Ferragni near Cremona, Italy, September 1907, description presented to the 163rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 14 December 1910, by F.C.R. Jourdain, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 27/165 (1910), 39 (indexed as ‘Exhibition and Description of a New Subspecies of Titmouse (Ægithalus caudatus italiæ)’);
    • A. c. siculus = Sicilian Tit – for Sicily, Italy, and the Sicels, from Latin siculus = Sicilian, from Siculī = Sicels – collected by Joseph I.S. Whitaker in Bosco di Fienzza, Sicily, 3 February 1901, on whose behalf the description was presented to the 27th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 20 March 1901, by W.R. Ogilvie Grant, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 11/78 (1901), 52 (indexed as Whitaker, ‘Acredula sicula, n. sp.’), the accompanying, extended description was published in ‘Further Information on Two Recently Described Species of Passerine Birds’, Ibis, 8th ser., 2/5 (1902), 54–58;
    • A. c. macedonicus = Macedonian Tit – for Macedonia – collected by Th. Krüper on Mount Olympus, Macedonia, 1891(?), description presented to the 3rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 21 December 1892, by T. Salvadori and H.E. Dresser, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 1/4 (1892), 15 (indexed as Dresser, ‘Acredula macedonica, sp. n.’, and Salvadori, ‘Acredula macedonica, sp. n.’), solely assigned to Dresser, whereupon an apologetic note was published by R. Bowdler Sharpe in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 1/5 (1893), 23, reinstating Salvadori as coauthor on the species, followed by an explanation of the joint work and extended description by Dresser in ‘On Acredula caudata and Its Allied Forms’, Ibis, 6th ser., 5/18 (1893), 240–241;
    • A. c. tephronotus = Ash-backed Tit – from Greek τεφρός, tephrós = ash-coloured, from τέφρα, téphra = ash, and Greek νῶτον, nôton = back – collected by Thomas Robson near ‘Havancore’, west Anatolia, present-day Turkey, December 1864(?), described by Albert Günther in ‘Description of a New Species of Long-tailed Titmouse from Asia Minor’, Ibis, ns, 1/1 (1893), 95–98, as Orites tephronotus, where Orites = mountaineer, from Greek ὄρος, óros = mountain, used by Paul Möhring (as Pavlo Henrico Gerardo Moehringio) in Avium genera (Bremae [Bremen]: Rump, 1752), 45;
    • A. c. tauricus = Crimean Tit – for Crimea, from Latin Taurica = Crimea, from Greek Ταυρικῆ, Taurikê = Crimea – type specimen collected in the woods of the Crimean Mountains (‘sylvis montium Yaïla’), description sent to be presented to the 94th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 18 February 1903, by M. Menzbier, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 13/95 (1903), 49 (indexed as ‘On New Species of Paridae from the Crimea’), as Acredula rosea taurica;
    • A. c. major = Greater Tit – from Latin maior = greater – type specimen collected by Gustav Radde from the Transcaucasian regions of Lankaran (Germanized as Lenkoran), present-day Azerbaijan, and Tiblisi (as Tiflis), present-day Georgia, description published in Radde, Ornis Caucasica: Die Vogelwelt des Kaukasus. Systematisch und biologisch-geographisch beschrieben (Kassel: Fischer, 1884), 144, as Acredula tephronota var. major;
    • (HBWAlive: Southern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. alpinus = Alpine Tit – from Latin alpīnus = alpine – described by Carl Hablitz (as Carl Hablizl) in ‘Bemerkungen in der persischen Landschaft Gilan und den gilanischen Gebirgen‘, in P.S. Pallas (ed.), Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie (St. Petersburg: Logan, 1783), vol. 4, 49–50, as Parus alpinus;
    • A. c. passekii = Passek’s Tit – for H.P. Passek, Russian consul in Busher (as Bender-Buschir), Iran (then Persia) – described by N. Zarudny (as N. Sarudny) in ‘Beschreibung zweier neuen Formen aus süd-west Persien’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 12/10 (1904), 164, as Acredula tephronota passekii;
    • (HBWAlive: Eastern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. trivirgatus = Three-striped Tit – from Latin prefix tri- = three, and Latin virgātus = striped – described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck and Hermann Schlegel in ‘Animalia vertebrata: Aves’, in Ph.Fr. von Siebold, Fauna Japonica (Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: Arnz, 1848), fasc. 5, pl. 34 (ill.), fasc. 6 (text), collated and republ. as Ph.Fr. von Siebold (as Ph.Fr. de Siebold), C.J. Temmink, H. Schlegel and W. de Haan, Fauna japonica (Lugduni Batavorum: Arnz, 1850), vol. 4, 71, pl. 34, as La mésange à longue queue du Japon Parus (Megisturus) trivirgatus, where Megisturus seems to be a variant spelling of Mecisturus (or Mecistura);
    • A. c. kiusiuensis = Kyushu Tit – for Kyushu, Japan, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected by Nagamichi Kuroda near Imazu, Kyushu, Japan, 10 September 1918, described in ‘Description of Two Apparently New Forms of Aegithalos caudatus from Japan and Korea’, Auk, 40/2 (1923), 313, as Aegithalos caudatus kiusiuensis;
    • A. c. magnus = Great Long-tailed Tit – from Latin magnus = great – type specimen collected by P.L. Jouy near Seoul, Korea, described by Austin H. Clark ‘Eighteen New Species and One New Genus of Birds from Eastern Asia and the Aleutian Islands’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 32/1539 (1907), 475, as Acredula trivirgata magna;
  • Silver-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: Silver-throated Tit) – Aegithalos glaucogularis = Glaucous-throated Tit – from Latin glaucus = glaucous, from Greek γλαυκος, glaukos = glaucous, and from Latin gularis = throated, from Latin gula = throat – type specimen shot near Shanghai, China, remained in the collection of John Gould, whose description was published in his Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 69 (text on opp. p.), as Mecistura glaucogularis (the plate mentions Mecistura glaucugularis, either a proofreading error or an error of illustrator H.C. Richter, even though Gould is named too) – another description of (the same) specimen in Gould’s collection was read by Frederic Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) glaucogularis – both publications were issued in the same month, though Moore’s was dated 11 April and Gould’s no date in April, thus assigned 30th, therefore Moore takes priority – by the time the trinomial concept had been embraced fully, renamed Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis by C.E. Hellmayr in Paridae, Sittidae und Certhiidae (Das Tierreich: Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen, ed. Franz Eilhard Schulze, Lfg. 18; Berlin: Friedländer, 1903), 118 – split from Aegithalos caudatus, 2008 recommendation: Simon Harrap, ‘Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)’, in Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie eds., Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 13. Penduline-tits to Shrikes (Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2008), 79;

    Silver-throated Bushtit

    Silver-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 69.
    • A. g. vinaceus = Vinaceous Bushtit – from Latin vīnum = wine, and Latin -āceus = relational adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Armand David in the mountains of ‘Thibet chinois’, described by J. Verreaux in ‘Note sur les espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux receuillis par M. l’Abbé Armand David dans les montagnes du Thibet chinois’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 6 (1871), 39, as Mecistura vinacea;
    • A. g. glaucogularis = the nominate form;
  • White-cheeked Bushtit (HBWAlive: White-cheeked Tit) – Aegithalos leucogenys = White-cheeked Tit – Latinized from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and Greek γένῡς, génūs = jaw, mouth – collected by William Griffith near ‘Balu Chughur’, Afghanistan, described by Frederic Moore in Thomas Horsfield and Moore, A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East India Company (London: Allen, 1854), vol. 1, 374–375, as Orites leucogenys – the description with an additional paragraph read by Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) leucogenys, although dated 1854 it was published in 1855, wherefore the description in the Catalogue takes priority;
  • White-cheeked Bushtit

    White-cheeked Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 66.
  • Black-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: Black-throated Tit) – Aegithalos concinnus = Elegant Tit – from Latin concinnus = neat, elegant – type specimen collected by T.C. Eyton near Zhoushan (as Chusan), described by John Gould in Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 65 (text on opp. p.), as Psaltria concinna Elegant Tit, where Psaltria = player (fem.) of a plucked, stringed instrument, e.g. lute, harp, from Latin psaltria = lutist, harpist (fem.), first used by C.J. Temminck and G.M.J. Meiffren Laugier (as Le Baron Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse) Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1836), livr. 101, pl. 600, collated and republ. as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1838), vol. 3, opp. pl. 600 (no page numbers, but p. 89);

    Black-throated Bushtit

    Black-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 65.
    • A. c. iredalei = Iredale’s Tit – for Tom Iredale – at the 11 January 1831 Meeting of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, N.A. Vigors presented type specimen from the collection of John Gould, originating from the Himalayas (possibly from Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India), description published in Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt 1 (1831), 23 (indexed as ‘Observations on a Collection of Birds from the Himalayan Mountains, with Characters of New Genera and Species’), as Parus erythrocephalus = Red-headed Tit, Latinized from Greek ἐρυθρός, eruthrós = red, and κεφάλι, kefáli = head – however, Parus eythrocephalus was preoccupied in Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 191 – renamed by E.C. Stuart Baker at the 250th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, held in London, 13 October 1920, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/253 (1920), 8 (indexed as ‘On New Names and Descriptions of New Subspecies of Indian Birds: — Ægithaliscus concinna iredalei, nom. n., Chloropsis aurifrons davisoni, nom. n., Hypothymis azurea sykesi, nom. n., Pellorneum ruficeps jonesi, subsp. n., and Turnix javanica leggei, subsp. n.’), as Ægithaliscus concinna iredalei, where Ægithaliscus is an alternative spelling of Aegithalos, with Latin -iscus = adjectival suffix, meant to be a diminutive form of Aegithalos by Jean Cabanis in Museum Heineanum: Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine, auf Gut St. Burchard vor Halberstadt (Halberstadt: Frantz, 1851), pt 1, 90 (‘Zwergmeise’) – HBWAlive: Red-headed Tit Aegithalos iredalei iredalei;
    • Aegithalos concinnus iredalei

      Aegithalos concinnus iredalei. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 64.
    • A. c. rubricapillus = Red-capped Tit – from Latin rubrī = red, and Latin capillus = hair – type specimen collected in Sikkim, ‘east of the Mishmi Hills’ [sic], November (1???), part of the Seebohm Collection, description sent by C.B. Ticehurst the 295th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 14 October 1925, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 46/299 (1925), 22 (indexed as ‘Descriptions of New Races of Himalayan Birds: Ægithaliscus concinna rubricapillus, Dendrocitta formosæ occidentalis and Seicercus burkii whistleri‘) – HBWAlive: Red-headed Tit Aegithalos iredalei rubricapillus;
    • A. c. manipurensis = Manipur Tit – for Manipur, India, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected by Alan Hume in the ‘eastern hills’ of Manipur, description published in ‘The Birds of Manipur, Assam, Sylhet and Cachar’, Stray Feathers, 11/1–4 (1888), 254, as Ægithaliscus manipurensis;
    • A. c. talifuensis = Dali Tit – for Dali City (as Tali-fu), Yunnan, China, and Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by G. Rippon at the 99th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 21 October 1903, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 14/100 (1903), 18 (indexed as ‘On a New Species of Tit from Western Yunan’), as Ægithaliscus talifuensis;
    • A. c. pulchellus = Beautiful Little Tit – from Latin pulcher = beautiful, pretty, and Latin -lus = diminutive adjectival suffix – collected by G. Rippon near Nanoi, around Loi Mai, Shan States (present-day Myanmar), in 1899, described at the 73rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 17 October 1900, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 11/74 (1900), 11 (indexed as ‘Ægithaliscus pulchellus, n. sp.’);
    • A. c. concinnus – the nominate form;
    • A. c. annamensis = Annam Tit – for Annam, and -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Herbert C. Robinson and C. Boden Kloss on the Đà Lạt Plateau (as Langbian Peaks), Lâm Đồng Province, Vietnam (then Annam, French Indochina) in ‘On the Birds from South Annam and Cochin China, Part II: Pycnonotidæ–Dicæidæ’, Ibis, 11th ser., 1/4 (1919), 606–607, as Ægithaliscus annamensis – HBWAlive: Grey-crowned Tit Augithalos annamensis;
  • White-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: White-throated Tit) – Aegithalos niveogularis = White-throated Tit – from Latin niveō = snowy, snow-white, and Latin gula = throat, and Latin -is = relational adjectival suffix – type specimen collected in ‘northern India’ (more specifically ‘northern Punjab’, according to Charles Vaurie in ‘Systematic Notes on Palaeartic Birds, No. 28: The Families of Remizidae and Aegithalidae’, American Museum Novitates, 1853 (1957), 20), in the collection of John Gould, description was read by Frederic Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) niveogularis – Gould’s own description was published in his Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 67 (text on opp. p.), as Acanthiparus glaucogularis White-throated Tit, where Acanthiparus = Thorny Tree Tit, Latinized from Greek ἄκανθος, ákanthos, from ἀκή, akḗ = thorn, and ἄνθος, ánthos = flower, and Latin parus = tit – both publications were issued in the same month, though Moore’s was dated 11 April and Gould’s no date in April, thus assigned 30th, therefore Moore takes priority;
  • White-throated Bushtit

    White-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 67.
  • Rufous-fronted Bushtit (HBWAlive: Rufous-fronted Tit) – Aegithalos iouschistos = possibly Rusty Crowned Tit – perhaps Latinized construction of Greek ἰόεις, ióeis, from ῑ̓ός, īós = rust, and Greek σχῐστός, skhistós = cloven, split – type specimen collected by B.H. Hodgson in Nepal, listed by Hodgson in ‘Catalogue of Nipalese Birds, Collected between1824 and 1844’, in John Edward Gray (ed.), Zoological Miscellany (London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Sowerby, Wood, 1844), pt 4, 83, as Parus jouschistos, but a nomen nudum, subsequently described by E. Blyth in ‘‟On the Leiotrichane Birds of the Subhemalayas”, by B.H. Hodgson, Esq., with Some Additions and Annotations, a Synopsis of the Inidan Pari, and of the Indian Frigillidae’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 13/156 (n.s., 72) (1845), 943, as Parus ioustichos;
  • Rufous-fronted Bushtit

    Rufous-fronted Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 68.
  • Black-browed Bushtit (HBWAlive: Black-browed Tit) – Aegithalos bonvaloti = Bonvalot’s Tit – for Gabriel Bonvalot – collected by ‘college students’ and Henri d’Orléans near Kangdin (as Tà-tsién-loû), Sichuan, China, 6 June 1890, during an expedition led by Bonvalot, described by É. Oustalet in Annales des sciences naturelles. Zoologie et paléontologie, 7th ser., 12/9 (1892), 284–286 (name on 286), as Acredula Bonvaloti;
    • A. b. bonvaloti = the nominate form;
    • A. b. obscuratus = Obscure Tit – from Latin obscūrātus = obscure, darkened – type specimen collected by Dean Sage Jr. and William G. Carter near ‘Cheng Gou Forks, west of Wenchwan’, (then?) Sichuan, China, 4 December 1934, mentioned by Hugh Birckhead in ‘The Birds of the Sage West China Expedition’, American Museum Novitates, 966 (1937), 13–14, assigned to Aegithaliscus bonvaloti bonvaloti, described by Ernst Mayer in J.K. Stanford, ‘The Vernay-Cutting Expedition to Northern Burma, with Notes on the Collection by Ernst Mayr’, Ibis, 82/4 (1940), 705, as Ægisthaliscus iouschistos obscuratus;
  • Burmese BushtitAegithalos sharpei = Sharpe’s Tit – for Richard Bowdler Sharpe – collected by G. Rippon from Nat Ma Taung (as Mt. Victoria), Myanmar, 25 March 1904, presented to the 106th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 18 May 1904, description published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 14/107 (1904), 84 (indexed as ‘On New Species of Birds from the Southern Chin Hills’), as Ægithaliscus sharpei – lumped with Aegithaliscus bonvaloti by Stuart Baker in ‘Hand-list of the “Birds of India”‘ as part of ‘Birds of the Indian Empire’, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 27/2 (1920), 235, as Aegithalos bonvaloti sharpei – regarding the possible conspecificity of Aegithalos niveogularis, A. iouschistos, A. bonvaloti, A. sharpei, Charles Vaurie in ‘Systematic Notes on Paleartic Birds. No. 28 The Families Remizidae and Aegithalidae’, American Museum Novitates, 1853 (1957), 20, posed lumping them under Aegithalos iouschistos, as this is the oldest name, after which Aegithalos iouschistis sharpei became more widely used, e.g. in David W. Snow (who advised Vaurie), ‘Family Aegithalidae’ in Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. (ed.), Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters (Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1967), vol. 12, 58 – split from Aegisthalos bonvaloti, 2008 recommendation: Simon Harrap, ‘Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)’, in Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie eds., Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 13. Penduline-tits to Shrikes (Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2008) – HBWAlive: as Aegithalos bonvaloti sharpei;
  • Sooty Bushtit (HBWAlive: Sooty Tit) – Aegithalos fuliginosus = Sooty Tit – from Latin fūlīginōsus = sooty, from fūlīgo = soot, and -osus = full of – type specimen collected by Armand David in east Sichuan, described by J. Verreaux in ‘Oiseaux considéré comme nouveaux provenant du voyage de M. l’Abbé Armand David dans le Thibet oriental’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 5 (1869), 36, as Mecistura fuliginosa, a more extensive description appeared in ‘Descriptions des oiseaux nouveaux ou incomplètement connu collecté par M. l’Abbé Armand David pendant son voyage dans le Thibet oriental et la partie adjacente de la Chine’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 7 (1871), 57–58, the accompanying illustration by J. Huet appeared in Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 8 (1878), pl. 5, fig. 4;
  • Pygmy Bushtit (HBWAlive: Pygmy Tit) – Aegithalos exilis = Small Tit – from Latin exīlis = small – described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in Temminck and Guillaume Michel Jérôme Meiffren Laugier (as Le Baron Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse), Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1836), livr. 101, pl. 600, the plate designed by French illustrator Jean-Gabriel Prêtre (as Prêtre) (collated and repr. as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770 (Paris: Levrault, 1838), vol. 3, pl. 600, text on subsequent pages), as Psaltrie mignonne (= Cute Harpist) Psaltria exilis – renamed and moved to Aegithalos, 2016 recommendation: Ulf S. Johansson, Per G.P. Ericson, Jon Fjeldså and Martin Irestedt, ‘The Phylogenetic Position of the World’s Smallest Passerine, the Pygmy Bushtit Psaltria exilis‘, Ibis, 158/3 (2016), 519, 525.
  • Pygmy Bushtit

    Pygmy Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 63.

Leptopoecile

Leptopoecile = Delicate Tit – from Greek λεπτός, leptós = thin, small, delicate, and genus epithet Poecile, which was coined by Jakob Kaup in Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt : Erster Theil welcher die Vogelsäugethiere und Vögel nebst Andeutung der Entstehung der letzteren aus Amphibien enthält (Darmstadt and Leipzig: Leske, 1829), vol. 1, 114, as a genus name (de Dohlemeise) for Parus ater and Parus palustris, where Poecile is derived in a note from the Greek ποικῐ́λος, translated into German bunt, indeed Greek ποικῐ́λος, poikílos = pied, variegated, mentioned in reference to birds by Athenaeus in Δειπνοσοφισταί [Food Connoisseurs], 9.397c (trans. , Banquet des savans par Athénée (Paris: Lamy, 1789), vol. 3, 505–506) via D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895), 148, thought to be Peacock.

  • White-browed Tit-warblerLeptopoecile sophiae = Sophia’s Tit – for Sofya Alexandrovna Severtzova née Poltoratskaya, wife of Nikolai Severtzov – described by Severtzov in ‘Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных’ [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna], Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography], 8/2 (1873), 66 (table), 135 (text), pl. 8, fig. 8–9, as Leptopoecile Sophiae, republ. in English as H.E. Dresser, ‘Notes on Severtzoff’s “Fauna of Turkestan” (Turkestan jevotnie)’, Ibis (trans. H.E. Dresser), 3rd ser., 6/22 (1876), 171–172 – meanwhile, a description was published by Allan Hume in ‘Novelties?’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 513–516, first for a new genus Stoliczkana and also for its sole species Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ, both for Ferdinand Stoliczka – however, in a note in Stray Feathers, 3/4 (1875), 329 (indexed as ‘Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ, Hume, is Leptopœcile sophiæ, Severtsov’) Hume realizes Severtzov’s precedence, although rather petulantly:

    ‘Having at last obtained a copy of N. A. Severtsov’s Vertikalnœ i horizontalnœ raspredlenie Turkestanskikh jevotnikh, published in the Izviestia impera torskavo obstchestva lionvetelei, estestvoznania anthopologii i ethnographii, (vide Stray Feathers, Vol. II., 514). I regret to say that I am not much wiser than I was before. It is written entirely in Russian and printed in the Russian character, and though I have attacked the language, I have not yet made sufficient progress to understand two consecutive sentences. I have, however, discovered one important point from the plates to wit that my Stoliczkana stoliczkæ, has already been named by Severtsov, Leptopœcile sophiæ. I don’t think that publications in Russian should count!’

    White-browed Tit-warbler

    White-browed Tit-warblers. Illustration: J. Gould & W. Hart, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 62.
    • (HBWAlive: White-browed Tit-warbler) L. s. sophiae = the nominate form;
    • (HBWAlive: Stoliczka’s tit-warbler) L. s. stoliczkae = Stoliczka’s Tit – for Ferdinand Stoliczka – described by Allan Hume in ‘Novelties?’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 513–516, as Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ;
    • L. s. major = Greater Tit – from Latin maior = greater – possibly collected by Majev and Wilkins, in Uqturpan County (zh: Wushi County, referred to as Ush-turfan), Xinjiang, China, described by M. Menzbier in ‘On the Birds of the Upper Tarim, Kashgaria’, Ibis, 5th ser., 3/12 (1885), 353, as Leptopoecile sophiae major;
    • L. s. obscurus = Dusky Tit – from Latin obscūrus = dark, dusky – type specimen collected by Nikolay Przhevalsky in mountain forests along the Yangtze (then well-known as Blue River), Tibet, on 16 April 1880 (Julian calendar)/28 April 1880 (Gregorian calendar), description published in ‘Новые виды птиц Центральной Азии’ [New species of birds of central Asia], Zapiski Imperatorskoĭ akademīi nauk/Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 55/1 (1887), 80–83 (republ. N.M. Prjevalsky, ‘On new species of central-Asian birds’ (trans. E. Delmar Morgan), Ibis, 5th ser., 5/20 (1887), 404–406, and Carl Detitius, ‘Przewalsky’s neue Vogelarten Centralasiens: Vortrag des Ehrenmitgliedes der Akademie N.M. Przewalsky in der Sitzung der Physikalisch-mathematischen Abtheilung in St. Peterburg vom 1.–13. Januar 1887’ (trans. C. Detitius), Journal für Ornithologie, 35/179 (1887), 277, though publ. likely 1888), as Leptopoecile obscura;
  • Crested Tit-warblerLeptopoecile elegans = Elegant Tit – from Latin ēlegāns = fine, elegant, handsome – type specimen collected by Nikolay Przhevalsky along the Yellow River (as Huang-Ho), south of Qinghai Lake (as Koko-nor Lake), China, April 1880, description published in ‘Новые виды птиц Центральной Азии’ [New species of birds of central Asia], Zapiski Imperatorskoĭ akademīi nauk/Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 55/1 (1887), 77–79 (republ. N.M. Prjevalsky, ‘On new species of central-Asian birds’ (trans. E. Delmar Morgan), Ibis, 5th ser., 5/20 (1887), 402–404, and Carl Detitius, ‘Przewalsky’s neue Vogelarten Centralasiens: Vortrag des Ehrenmitgliedes der Akademie N.M. Przewalsky in der Sitzung der Physikalisch-mathematischen Abtheilung in St. Peterburg vom 1.–13. Januar 1887’ (trans. C. Detitius), Journal für Ornithologie, 35/179 (1887), 275–276, though publ. likely 1888), as Leptopoecile elegans;

Psaltriparus

A combination of Psaltria and Parus epithets, first mentioned and described by Charles Bonaparte in ‘Sur deux espèccs nouvelles de Paridae’, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 31/14 (1850), 478.

American BushtitPsaltriparus minimus = Least Tit – from Latin miminus = least, smallest – collected by John Kirk Townsend in the forests along the Columbia River, description presented in paper read by ‘Townsend’s friends’ in his absence to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 15 November 1836, published in ‘Description of Twelve New Species of Birds, Chiefly from the Vicinity of the Columbia River’, Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 7/2 (1837), 190, as Parus minimus;

American Bushtit

American Bushtits. Illustration by J.J. Audubon, in John James Audubon, The Birds of North America, from Drawings Made in the United States and Their Territories (New York: Audubon, 1841), vol. 2, pl. 160.
  • P. m. saturatus = Saturated Tit – from Latin saturātus = sated – collected by C.P. Streator near Mount Vernon, WA, USA, 11 December 1895, described by Robert Ridgway in ‘Descriptions of New Genera Species and Subspecies of American Birds’ [sic], Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 16/28 (1903), 109, as Psaltriparus minimus saturatus;
  • (HBWAlive: Plain Bushtit) P. m. minimus = the nominate form;
  • P. m. melanurus = Black-tailed Bushtit – Latinized from Greek μελανουρος, melánouros = black-tailed, from μέλας, mélas = black, and οὐρά, ourá = tail – collected by Joseph Grinnell near San José del Cabo (as San Jose), Baja California Sur (as Lower California), Mexico, 21 October 1925, described by Grinnell and Harry S. Swarth in ‘New Subspecies of Birds (Fenthestes, Baeolophus, Psaltriparus, Chamaea) from the Pacific Coast of North America’, University of California Publications in Zoology, 30/5 (1926), 169, as Psaltriparus minimus melanurus Black-tailed Bush-tit;
  • P. m. grindae = Grinda’s Bushtit – for Don Francisco G. Grinda – collected by L. Belding in Sierra de la Laguna (as Laguna), Baja California Sur (as Lower California), Mexico, 2 February 1883, described by Robert Ridgway in ‘Descriptions of Some New Birds from lower California, Collected by Mr. L. Belding’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 6/10 (1883), 155, as Psaltriparus grindæ Grinda’s Titmouse;
  • P. m. californicus = California Bushtit – for California, USA – collected by Charles W. Townsend near Baird, Shasta County, CA, USA, 27 May 1883, described in a paper by Robert Ridgway read at the 58th Meeting of the Biological Society of Washington, 23 February 1884, published as ‘Descriptions of Some New North American Birds’, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 2 (1884), 89–90, as Psaltriprarus minimus californicus;
  • (HBWAlive: Plumbeous Bushtit) P. m. plumbeus = Lead-coloured Bushtit – from Latin plumbum = lead, and Latin‎ -eus = adjectical suffix – collected by C.B.R. Kennerly and H.B. Müllhausen along the Little Colorado River, NM, USA, 1 February 1854, description read by S.F. Baird to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 20 June 1854, published as ‘Descriptions of New Birds Collected between Albuquerque, N.M., and San Francisco, California, during the Winter of 1853–1854, by Dr. C.B.R. Kennerly and H.B. Müllhausen, Naturalists Attached to the Survey of the Pacific R.R. Route, under Lt. A.W. Whipple’, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 7/3 (1854), 118, as Psaltria plumbea;
  • P. m. dimorphicus = Dimorphic Bushtit – Latinized from Greek διμορφος, dimorphos = dimorphic, from δι- di- = two, and μορφή, morphḗ = shape, form – collected by A.J. van Rossem and Robert Hannum near Racho Santa Barbara, Guirocoba, Sonora, Mexico, 8 June 1937, described by van Rossem and Masauji Hachisuka in ‘A Dimorphic Subspecies of the Bish-tit from Northwestern Mexico’, Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 9/3 (1938), 8, as Psaltriparus minimus diomorphicus;
  • P. m. iulus = Catkin Bushtit – from Latin iūlus = catkin – type specimen collected by P.L. Jouy near Hacienda El Molino, Jalisco, Mexico, described by Jouy in ‘Notes on Birds of Central Mexico, with Descriptions of Forms Believed to Be New’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 16/975 (1874), 776, as Psaltriparus melanotis iulus;
  • P. m. personatus = Masked Bushtit – from Latin persōnātus = masked, from persōna = mask, and -ātus = qualifying adjectival suffix – described by Charles Bonaparte in ‘Sur deux espèccs nouvelles de Paridae’, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 31/14 (1850), 478, as Psaltriparus personatus;
  • (HBWAlive: Black-eared Bushtit) P. m. melanotis = Black-eared Bushtit – from Latin melanōtis = black-eared, from Greek Greek μέλᾱς, mélās = black, and οὖς, oûs = ear, and Latin -is = compositional adjectival suffix – described by Gustav Hartlaub in ‘Description de sept oiseaux nouveaux de Guatemala’, Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne, 7 (1844), 216, as Parus melanotis.